Department of Panchayat and Rural Development

Government of Madhya Pradesh







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Accelerated Erosion - Erosion of soil material at a rate greater than that of normal erosion. Erosion more rapid than that which existed under natural conditions. Accelerated erosion occurs as a result of destruction of vegetal cover or of some activity of man. It may consist of any of the recognized types of erosion such as sheet erosion, gully erosion, wind erosion, or landslides, or combinations of them.

Acclimatization: Adaptation to a different climate. (BCFT).

Acidity: The extent to which the *pH value of a solution falls below 7. Cf. Alkalinity. (BCFT). See Soil, acid.

Advance Growth (Silvic.): Seedlings and poles of species of the overwood that have become* established naturally in a forest before regeneration feelings are started. Syn. Advance reproduction; Advance regeneration.

Aeration, Soil, (Ped.): The process by which air and other gases in the soil are renewed. The rate of soil aeration depends largely on the size and number of soil pores and on the amount of water clogging the pores. A soil with many large pores open to permit rapid aeration is said to be well aerated, while a poorly aerated soil either has few large pores or has most of those present blocked by water. (SSSA).

Aerobic: Applied to soil organisms that can live only in the presence of oxygen and to conditions in which free oxygen is available. Anton. Anaerobic.

Afforest: To establish a forest by artificial means on an area from which forest vegetation has always or long been absent. Cf. Reforest. (BCFT modif.).

Age Classification: The division of a crop according to differences in age; or the allotment of woods to *age classes.

Age Gradation: An * age class with one year as the interval. Loosely used sometimes as synonymous with age class (deprec.) (BEFT modif.).

Age, Class: One of the intervals into which the range of age of trees growing in a forest is divided for classification or use; also the trees falling into such an interval. Cf. Age, gradation. (BCFT).

Age, Exploitable: The age at which an individual tree or crop attains the size or stage of growth required to fulfil the objects of *management, Syn. Rotation age; Cutting age (Am.). (BCFT modif.).

Agroforestry: A collective term for land-use systems and technologies fin which woody perennials (trees, shrubs, palms, bamboos etc.) are deliberately used on the same land management unit as agricultural crops and/or animals, either under some form of spatial arrangement or temporal sequence. In agroforestry systems there are both ecological and economical interactions between the various components.

Agroforestry is defined as a sustainable land management system which increases the field of land, combines the production of crops (including trees) and forest plants or animals or both simultaneously or sequentially on the same unit of land and applies management practices that are compatible with cultural prentices of the local population.

Agro-horticulture:- Fruit trees and crops are grown together in various wags. Depending on the pattern and configuration, these companion crops are known as inter-cropping. In inter-cropping, agricultural crops are normally grown between rows of fruit trees at a spacing of 5 to 7 meters apart.

Ahorizon: The upper layer of soil is usually higher in organic matter and darker in cooler than the layers below. This upper layer is called the A horizon, or topsoil. The A horizon is the portion of the soil most exposed to the weathering action of the sun, rain, wind and ice and to the action of living things. The more easily decomposed materials whether away first, thus leaving the more resistant minerals concentrated in the toposil.

Alkalinity: The extent to which the *pH value of a solution exceeds 7. Cf. Acidity. (BCFT).

Alkalization. (Ped.): A process whereby the exchangeable sodium content of the soil is increased. (SSSA).

Alluvium: Material deposited by streams is called alluvium. The streams may be large or small, swift or slow. The streams may be large or small, swift or slow. The bulk o alluvial material is transported during flood stage when heavy rains cause water to come pouring from the mountains and hills. The whole action is changeable as the currents come and go. Mateiral of one texture is often deposited on top of material o another texture, thus forming a stratified deposit.

Anaerobic: Applied to organisms that can live without free oxygen and to conditions in which free oxygen is not available. Anton. Aerobic.

Anemometer (Met.): An instrument for measuring the direction, force and velocity of wind.

Aquasilvicultural system: Agroforestry systems which combine trees with the raising of aquatic animals.

Arboretum: A place for cultivating and displaying trees.

Arboriculture: The art of cultivating trees primarily for shade or landscape effects.

Arenaceous: A term used to indicate sandy soils.

Argillaceous : A term used to indicate clayey soils.

Artificial Regeneration: The process of renewal of a forest by sowing, plantings or other artificial means

Artificial Reproduction: The result of artificial regeneration, seedlings or growth obtained by sowintgs, plantings, etc.

Aspect: (a) The direction towards which a slope faces, Cf. Expsoure. (b) (Ecol.). the seasonal appearance of a *community, e.g., Spring aspect, Summer aspect, etc.

Associate (a) (Ecol.) Applied to any of the dominant species associated with a given species in a plant *association. (b) Also applied loosely to all species, dominant or otherwise, associated with a given species in a *crop (Deprec).

Association Plant (Ecol.) : A major unit of a *climax formation characterized by one or more dominants peculiar to it. Cf. Consociation. See Climax units.

Autecology: The *ecology of an individual organism or taxonomic group as opposed to *synecology which is the ecology of a community. (BCFT).

Autotrophic Plants: Plants which obtain their food exclusively from the inorganic materials of soil, air and water. Cf. Heterotrophic palnts. (BCFT).

Auxin. Collective term for naturally occuring organic substances which in minute concentrations influence the growth of plants favourably or otherwise. (BCFT).

Average (Stat): Syn. Arithmetic *mean. Sometimes used in a general way as a representative value. See Mean, Weighted.

Azimuth: The horizontal angle or bearing measured clockwise from the astronomic north. (BCFT).

Azonal Soils (Ped.) Soils without distinct genetic horizons. A soil order. (SSSA).




Bark Gauge: An instrument for measuring the thickness of bark (BCFT)

Bark Gauge: An instrument for measuring the thickness of bark (BCFT)

Bark Scotch: Localized injury to bark and * cambium caused by exposure of a stem to intesive sunlight or high temperature often resulting in wounds. Syn. Sunscald. (BCFT modif.).

Bark, Over; Bark, Under: Refer to girth or diameter measurements which include or exclude the bark, Abbr. o.b. - over bark; u.b. (pref.) or i.b. - under or inside bark. (BCFT modif.)

Bark: Tissues of stem and root of a tree outside the *cambium layer; in older trees usually divisible into inner (living) and outer (dead) bark. (BCFT).

Basal Area: The area of the cross-section of a stem at *breast-height. When applied to a crop ("crop basal area"), the sum of basal areas of all the stems or the total basal area per unit of area. Abbr. b.a.

Base Exchange (Ped.): The process whereby a soil absorbs certain positively charged ions from the soil solution and gives up other cations in equivalent quantities and in which the colloidal fraction of the soil is primarily concerned. The term "Cation Exchange" is tending to be substituted (BCFT) modif).

Base Exchange Capacity: The total capacity of a soil for holding eations. Syn. Cation exchange capacity.

Base Line: A line which is used as a base for further work, particulary in surveying. (BCFT modif.).

Base Status (High or Low) (Ped.): The quantity of nutrient bases available in the soil. (BCFT).

Basin Listing (S.C.) The ploughing or furrowing of land, usually on the contour, with a special lister that places earth plugs at intervals in the open furrows to small basins between them. (USDA).

Basiphile (Ecol.). A plant which tends to be restricted to basic soils. See Calciphile (BCFT).

Bast : The fibrous portion of the *pholoem or inner bark of a tree (BCFT). Bd. Ft. Abbr. for Board foot (feet). See Foot, board.

Beat Up, To: To restock blanks in an artificially regenerated area with fresh sowings or plantings. (BCFT modif.).

Beat Up, To: The solid rock underlying soils and the *regolith or exposed at the surface without a cover. (SSSA).

Beetle (Entom.). An insect of the order Coleoptera, having its wings covered and protected by hard outer wing-cases.

Bench Terrace: Conversion of a steep slope into a series of steps with near-horizontal hedges and near-vertical walls between hedges, using retaining walls (rock) or steep banks (soil) for intensive cropping.

Bench Terraces (SC.): Level or slightly sloping platforms constructed for soil conservation along the contours of a slope, separated from one another by a much steeper slope, and with a bank, usually covered with a vegetation, on their outer edges. (BCFT).

Bias (Stat.). The difference between the population *mean as sampled and the average of the sample values that would be obtained in an infinitely large number of repetitions of a sampling process. A sampling process involving such a difference is said to be "biased".(BCFT).

Biocoenosis (Ecol.): A loosely used term. A community of organisms inhabiting an area in which the mean environmental conditions are uniform. (BCFT).

Biological Spectrum (Ecol.): A term used by Raunkiaer to indicate the relative percentages of species of different life * forms in a given area.

Biome (Ecol.). A living * community formed by all the organisms occuring together in a given *habitat. (BCFT).

Biotic Factor (Ecol.): Any influence of living organisms. Usually restricted to the influence of animals including man. Cf. Anthropogenic factors. (BCFT modif.).

Biotic Potential: The inherent power of an organism to multiply over a given period of time in the absence of control factors. (BCFT).

Biotic: Pertaining to living organisms in their ecological rather than physiological relations. Anton. Abiotic. See Biotic factors. (BCFT).

Biotype (Genet): A *population with identical genetic constitution. (BCFT).

Block: (a) A main territorial division of forest, generally bounded by natural features and bearing a local proper name. (b) (Stat.). A number of plots often, but not necessarily, contiguous, grouped together because they appear likely to be fairly homogeneous in respect of the *variables to be studied, except for difference due to except for difference due to experimental treatment. (BCFT).

Bole: The main stem of a tree. (BCFT). Sometimes used to refer to only the lower part of the stem up to a point where the main branches are given off, i.e., as a synonym of clear or clean bole (deprec.). Syn. Trunk.

Bonomics (Biol.): Study of the relation of an organism or population of organisms to its *environment. (PDB modif.).

Browsing: Feed on, buds, shoots and leaves woody growth by livestock. Browse is any material browsed or fit for browsing.

Bund: In India, any artificial cmbankment, a dam, dyke, causeway

Bole, Clear (or Clean). The part of a bole that is free of branches.

Bole, Commercial. The length of bole that is ordinarily fit for utilization as timber. (BCFT). Syn. Commercial timber bole; Merchantable length or bole.

Bole, Standard Timber. The length of the bole from ground level up to the point where the average diameter over bark is 8 inches.

Borer, Shoot or Twig. A member of one of several families of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera or Diptera, which bores into the wood or pith of twigs or shoots. (BCFT)

Branchwood. The woody portions of a tree exclusive of the bole and roots. (BCFT modif.)

Breast Height. Almost universally adopted as the standard height for measuring girth, diameter and basal area of standing trees. In India, Burma, America, Union of South Africa, Malaya and some other British Colonies, it is taken as 4 feet 6 inches (1.37 m.) above ground level. Europe, U.K. and most other countries of the Comi-nonwealth have it as 4 feet 3 inches (1.30 m.) and this is recommended as a standard for international adherence by FAO. Abbr. b.h. On slopes breast height is taken on the uphill side. (BCFT modif.).

Broad Leaved Tree. A tree belonging to the botanical group, Dicotyledons, and producing timber usually known as "hardwood". (BCFT modif.). Cf. Conifer. Also see Hardwods; Softwoods.

Browsing: Feed on, buds, shoots and leaves woody growth by livestock. Browse is any material browsed or fit for browsing.

Brush Matting (S.C.). Placing a mat of brushwood or grasses on land to conserve moisture and reduce wind erosion while a cover of trees or other vegetation is being established. (USDA modif.).

Brushwood. (a) A growth of low shrubs and bushes. I (b) Fallen or cut branches and twigs of trees.

Buffer Action (Ped.). The ability of a soil to resist major alterations in its *pH value under the influence of added dilute solutions of ionizable substances, A icushioning' effect produced by the colloidal material present in the soil. (BCFT).

Buffer Stripping (S.C.) Establishing narrow strips of grass or other erosion-resisting vegetation below cultivation or above water diversions, usually on the contour to resist erosion. (USDA).

Burning, Controlled. Any deliberate use of fire whereby burning is restricted to a predetermined area and intensity. (BCFT).

Burning, Early. Controlled *burning early in the dry season, before the leaves and under-growth are completely dry or before the leaves are shed, as an insurance against later fire damage. (BCFT)

Burning, Late. Controlled or uncontrolled burning late in the dry season, after leaf-fall where the trees are deciduous. (BCFT~.

Burning, Patch. Burning slash, grass, etc., in patches for the purpose of preparing sites for planting or sowing. (BCFT modif.).

Burning, Strip. A method of controlled *burning practised on slopes. The area is burnt in successive strips beginning on the uphill side. (BCFT).

Burr. A woody outgrowth on the bole or branch of a tree, often caused by an accumulation of dormant buds. Syn. Burl.

Bush. (a) A general term for all types of forest or woodland, usually referring to untended indigenous forest. Syn. Jungle. (b) *shrub. (BCFT).

Butt. The base of a tree or log.

Buttress. An outgrowth from the base of the tree connecting it with the roots, especially common in tropical rain forest species; an exaggerated form of *root swelling. (BCFT). Cf. Fluting.


Calcification (Ped.). A soil-forming process resulting in aecumulation of calcium and magnesium carbonates in the lower horizons and found largely in semi-arid and sub-humid desert and grassland regions and in more humid parklaDd forested regions. kBCFT).

Calcifuge (Ecol.). A plant which tends to avoid calca*reous soils. Cf. Basifuge. BUT).

Calciphile (Ecol.). A plant which tends to be restricted to calcareoussoils. Cf. Ba8iphile. (11CFT).

Calliper. Girth. A tree *calliper specially graduated to read off girths directly.

Calliper (Caliper), Tree (Mens.). An instrument for measuring tree or log diameters by taking their rectilinear projections on a grduated scale. (BUT).

Callus. Tissue that develops after a plant is wounded / and tends to cover the wound. (BCFT modif.).

Cambium (Bot.). The actively dividing layer of cells whieh lies between and gives rise to *xylem and *phloem, i.e., wood and inner bark. (BCFT)

Canker. A definite, relatively localized, necrotic *lesion primarily of the bark and *cambium. (BCFT)

Canopy. The cover of branches and foliage formed by the crowns of trees in a wood. Syn. Leaf canopy. (BCFT modif.). Cf. Storey.

Canopy, Closed. A *canopy in which the individual' tree crowns generally touch one another. Syn. Complete canopy. (BCFT modif.). See under Density, canopy.

Canopy Class. One of the classes into which canopies found in a storeyed hijzh *forest are divided on the basis of their relative heights, e.g., top canopy, middle storey, etc. Cf. Crown class.

Capillar water: The water held between field capacity and the hyroscopic coefficient is called capillary water. Capillar water is held in the small pores or "capillaries" in much the same manner that water can be held in a thin glass tube.

C horizon : The C horizon, commonly referred to as the soil parent material, occurs beneath the solum and extends downward to bedrock. Its origin is either a soft rock material, such as alluvium or loess, or the unconsolidated mass produced by primarily physical weathering of hard rocks. It may be thick, thin, or even absent.

Chroma: The purity of a colour is designated by its chroma. A pure color reflectin only one wave-length of light would have a chroma of about 20. Actual soil colors can be duplicated by mixing diferent amounts of pure hue with neutral gray colors. Grays have zero chroma and are designated N for neutral because they have no hue. That is, they reflect equal percentages of each wave-length of light. The Munsell color notation system uses chroma along with hue and value to describe soil colors.

Clay: (1) Small mineral particles of the soil, less than 0.002 mm in diameter. (2) Soil material containing 40% or more clay, less than 45% sand, and less than 40% silt.

Compost. A mixture of vegetable materials, which has been allowed to rot, often with the addition of animal and/or mineral products; used as a soil improver. (BUT).

Contour line: A line connecting points of equal elevation on the land surface is called a contour line. A contour map is one that shows contour lines, normally with a regular vertical interval (elevation different) between lines.

Contouring: Contouring (contour tillage) consists of performing all tillage operations so nearly parallel to contour lines that crosive flow of water along the tillage lines is eliminated. Contouring is one of the simplest and least expensive soil conserving practices known. In fact, working aroudn a hill rather than up and down it usually reduces fuel consumption, sometimes by as much as 10 percent.

Contour Bund :- Contour bunding consists of constructing narrow-based trapezoidal embankments (bunds) on contour to impound runoff water behind them so that all the impounded water is absorbed gradually in to the subsurface soil.

Crop rotation: A pattern of using fields for specific crops in a specific sequence, usually to prevent soil exhaustion from a demanding crop or to control pests and disease.

Cropping pattern :- Cropping pattern is the arrangement or method of raising crops in an area.

Crust: A soil crust a common form of compact, excessively strong soil, often resulting from the pounding action of raindrops falling on bare soil. Crusts are denser and stronger than the soil below and contain more humus, clay, and silt than the underlying soil. Many soil crusts are too strong for seedlings to brek through; the seedlings are deflected downward and die without emerging from the soil.

Carbon-Nitrogen Ratio (Ped.). The ratio of the weight of organic carbon to the weight of Votal nitrogen in a soil, or organic material. (SSSA).

Catch Crop. A crop grown temporarily on land that will eventually carry a crop of different species, in order to maintain the productivity or prevent the erosion of the land prior to the establishment of the main crop. (BCFT).

Catchment Area. The total area draining into a given waterway, lake or reservoir. Drainage area Cf. Watershed. (BCFT).

Catena (Ped.) A group of soils that always occur in association with one another in some characteristic pattern related to topographical factors. Anton. Mosaic. (BCFT).

Cattle. Under the Indian Forest Act the term includes elephants, camels, buffaloes, horses, mares, geldings, ponies, colts, fillies, mules, asses, pigs, rams, ewes, sheep, lambs, goats and kids.

Census (Stat). A complete enumeration and classification of a *population; the phrase "sample census" is sometimes used to describe the enumeration of a *sample from which the probable results of a complete census can be estimated. (BCFT).

Check Enumeration. A re-enumeratioii of the whole or part of the growing stock in order to veri~y the results of a previous *enumeration.

Check Dam (S.C.). A small low dam constructed in a gully or other water-course to decrease the velocity of stream flow and thereby to minimize channel scour and promote deposition of eroded material. (USDA modif.).

Chernozem (Ped.). A mature grassland soil of semiarid climates, usually developed on *loess, characterized by deep permeation of dark organic matter and a zone of accummulation of secondary CaCO, beneath. The surface *horizon usually has a good *crumb structure. (Name derived from Russian meaning "black earth"). BCFT). Also spelt as Tschernosem or Tschernosiom.

Chlorosis. An unseasonable yellowing of foliage, symptomatic of a chlorophyll deficiency in the leaf tissues under normal light conditions. (BUT).

Chromosome (Genet.). One of a set of deeply staining nuclear bodies that become evident during cell division. They bear the *genes or unit factors of heredity, and the number in any species is usually constant. (BCFT),

Clan (Ecol.). A small plant *eommunity of subordinate importance but of distinctive character, frequently the result of vegetative propagation. (BCFT).

Clay (Ped.). (a) The finest soil particles, under 0.002 nim. in diameter. See Soil texture. (b) Also a soil containing a high proportion of such particles. (BUT modif.)

Clay Loam; Clayey Loam (Ped.). Aheavy soil intermediate in texture between *clay and *loam. (BUT). See soil class.

Clayey (Ped.). Includes all clay textural classes, i.e., / sandy clay, silty clay and clay. (SSSA).

Cleaning. A *tending operation done in a *saplinf, crop, involving the removal or topping of inferior growth including individuals of the favoured species, climbers, etc., when they are interfering with the better grown individuals of the favoured species. It merges with thinnings as the saplings grow into poles: Syn. Release Cutting. (Am.).

Climatic Factors (Ecol.). Light, atmospheric temperature, pressure and humiditv, winds and other features of climate- regional, local and seaSODal-that influence vegetation.

Climatic Index (Ped.). A number which condenses climatic data into a simplified expression. (Transeau's ratio P/E is a climatic index). (SSSA).

Climax (Ecol.). The culmination stage in plant *succession for a given *environment. (BCFT). Used as an exact synonym of climatic *climax by Clements and his school.

Climax. Biotic (Ecol.). A *climax which differs from the climatic *climax of the area owing to the action of *biotic faftors. Clements calls it *disclimax.

Climax, Climatic (Ecol.). A *climax which owes its distinctive characters to climatic factors in conjunction with only such biotic influences as plants and animals naturally occurring in the area bring about. See Formation. Syn. Climax.

Climax Edaphic (Ecol.). A *community which differs from the climatic *climax of the area owing to the inflnence of special soil factors. (BCFT modif.).

Climax Units (Ecol.). According to Clements, these Units in descending order of complexity are : *Asso. ciation, *consociation, *faciation, *1ociation, *society and *clan.v

Climber. A herbaceous or woody plant that climbs up trees or other support by twining round them or by holding on to them by tendrils, hooks, aerial roots or other attachments. Cf. Creeper. See Liane or (Liana).

Climber Cutting, A *cultural operation or *tending in which climbers are cut back.

Close, To. To prohibit entry into a forest for exercising any right or privilege, such as grazing, felling, shooting, grass-cutting, minor forest produce collection, etc. Such closure may be for silvicultural, punitive or other reasons.

Close Season. The period during which hunting, catching or killing any particular animal, bird or fish is prohibited by law. (BUT modif.)

Closure, Crown. The closing together of the crowns of trees in a forest, as in the younger stages of a stand, or after *thinning. (BCFT modif.).

Clump. (a) The aggregate of stems issuing from the same root, *rhizome system or *stool with particular reference to bamboos and the larger grasses. (b) An isolated group of trees. (BUT).

Cockchafer. A melolonthid beetle.

Codominance (Ecol.). The sharing of *dominance by , two or more species.

Codominant. (a) Applied to a *dominant tree which falls a little below the general top level of the topmost canopy and is about 5/6th of the average height of the *predominant trees, See Pree classes. Appendix If. (b) (Ecol.). A species that shares *dominance more or less equally with others. (BUT modif.).

Collar. The portion of a plant which marks the transition between stem and root, sometimes marked by a slight swelling. Syn. Root collar.

Colonist (Ecol.). One of two or more species that invade new territory to form a *colony.

Colonization (Ecol.). The process of forming colonies.

Colony (Ecol.). A new group of two or more species invading a new territory. (Clements and Shelford, 1949). Cf. Family.

Colluvium (Ped.). Deposit of rock fragments and soil material accumulated at the base of steep slopes by gravitatioDal action. (SSSA).

Commercial Timber. The volume under bark of the comriercial *bole.

Community (Ecol.). An aggregation of living organIsms, without reference to its ecological status.

Compartment (Man.). A territorial unit of aforest permanently define~dfor purposesof administration, description and record. (Preferably designated by Arabienumerals, 1,2,3, etc.). See Block; Coupe_ Cf. Sub-compartment.

Compartment History. A record of all events effecting the forestry of an individual compartment. (BUT).

Compartment line. The boundary of a compartment.

Competition (Ecol.). The struggle for the available food, li(,ht and moisture, which takes place among species and individuals in an assemblage of plants.

Composition. The various species which form a forest crop and their proportion in it. (BUT).

Compost. A mixture of vegetable materials, which has been allowed to rot, often with the addition of animal and/or mineral products; used as a soil improver. (BUT).

Compounding of offences. The acceptance by a forest or other officer, legally empowered to do so, of a sum of money from a person against whom there is reasonable evidence that he has committed a forest offence, as compensation in lieu of prosecution in court. (BUT modif.).

Concretion. Hardened local concentrations of certain chemical compounds as calcium carbonate or iron oxides in the form of indurated grains or nodules of various sizes, shapes and colour. (SSSA).

Conifer. A tree belonging to the order Coniferales of the botanical group, Gymnospermae, bearing cones and generally needle-shaped or scale-like leaves, usually evergreen and producing timber often known as "softwood". (BCFT modif.). Cf. Broad leaved tree. Also see Hardwoods; Softwoods.

Consistence (Ped.). The degree of cohesion of the soil mass and the resistance of the soil aggregates to disintegration under handling or other forms of pressure. The following definitions are commonly recognized :

(a) Friable.-Auger comes up loosely packed. Digs easily.

(b) Indurated. -Auger grinds and spins. Pick needed in digging.

(c) Loose.-Particles fall off auger or run through fingers.

()3 Mellow. Bores or digs easily. Good tilth.

() Plastic. Putty-like and readily moulded.

(f) Tenacious.-Auger sucks and comes up full. Spade clogs. (BCFT).

The following terms are used for describing this property at three moisture contents :-

consistence when dry-loose, slightly hard, hard, very hard and extremely hard.

consistence when moist-loose, very friable, friable, firm, very firm, and extremely firm.

consistence when wet (Stickiness)-nonsticky, slightly sticky, sticky and very sticky.

consistence when wet (Plasticity)- nonplastic, slightly plastic, plastic, very plastic. (SSSA).

Consociation (Ecol.). A unit in an *association characterized by the porninence of a single species. Cf. Association. See Climax units.

Consocies (Ecol.). The *seral equivalent of *consociation.

Containers, Plant. Containers in whicl, plants are raised from seed or into which they are transferred from seed bed for the purpose of planting out later. These may be of any easily available local material, e.g., leaf cups (dona8) baskets, collapsible wooden frames, earthen pots, open tubes of bamboo, paper or thin metal sheeting

Contour Cropping ~S.C.). The cultivation of crops in strips along the contours of a slope. (BCFT). Cf. Strip cropping.

Contour Furrow or Trench. A furrow or trench constructed along the contour of a slope to check run-off and soil loss. (BCFT).

Control (a) (Yield). The regulation of annual or periodic felliDgS. See Control, area; Control, basal area; Control, volume. (b) (Adm.). The comparison of operations carried out in a forest with those prescribed by the working plan. See Control forms. (c) (Experimental). That part of an experimental series providing a standard of comparison for determining the effects of the treatment(s). (d) (Protec). A check on the increase of the population of an insect, animal or plant imposed by a single factor or a combination of factors. These may be natural (climate, nutritional factors parasites or disease) or artificial (silvicultural practices or direct intervention by biological, mechanical or chemical means). (BCFT modif).

Control, Biological (Protec.). The employment of the enemies and diseases of a pest for the purpose of maintaining adequate control. The artificial application of biotic control. (BCFT).

Control, Biotic. The natural control of the numbers of an insect, animal or plant by its enemies and diseases. (BUT).

Control, Natural. Nature's method of controlling plant and animal populations through the action of beat, cold, moisture, dryness, parasites, predators, disease, etc.

Control, Volume. Regulation of the annual or periodicyield bythe volume of fellings prescribed. (BCFTmodif.). Syn. Volume regulation; Methodby volume.

Control Line. An inclusive term for all barriers, natural or constructed, that are used to control a fire. (BCFT modif.).

Control Plot. Untreated plot in an experimental design. (BUT). See Control (c).

Conversion (Man.). A change from one silvicultural svstem or one (set of) species to another. See System, Coppice, To. (a) (Transitive). To fell trees near ground level with a view to their producing *coppice shoot,,. Cf. Pollard. (b) (Intransitive). To produce coppice shoots. (BCFT)conversion. (BCFT modif.).

Coppice. A crop of *coppice shoots. (BCFT). 'Coppice, Seedling, Coppice shoots arising from the base of seedlings that have been cut or burnt back.

Coppice Shoot. A shoot arising from an adventitious bud at the base of a woody plant that has been cut near the ground or burnt back. Sometimes (incorrectly) used to include *root suckers. In Aineriean both are referred to as sprouts. Syn. Stool shoot. (B(,FT).

Correlation (Stat.). A relationship between two or more variables such that a change in the value of one i,s aceompanied by some", timable change, direct or inverse, in the value of the other(s). j3CFT).

Correlation Coefficient (Stat.). A measure of linear correlation that can take values between + I and - 1. A value near to + I indicates almost perfect positive association, high values of one variable occurring with high values of the other ; a value near to - I indicates almost perfect negative association; a value near to zero indicates absence of association. (BCFT).

Counterfire, To. An attempt to extinguish an advancing forest fire by deliberately burning the forest from the opposite direction.

Coupe (Man.). A felling area, usually one of an annual series unless otherwise stated. Pr4erably numbered with Roman numerals, 1, 11, 111, etc. Cf. Compartment.

Covariance (Stat.). The sum of the products of deviation of two or more correlated variables from their means, divided by the number of degrees of freedom. (USFT).

Covariance, Analysis of (Stat.). Analysis of variance applied to correlation problems. It compares any number of statistical groups simultaneously when each group is composed of two correlated variables. (USFT).

Cover, Crown. The horizontal projection on the ground of a tree crown. (BCFT)

Cover, Game. Plants suitable for harbouring and feeding of game.

Cover, Ground. The carpet of herbaceous plants and low shrubs, which covers the soil. Syn. Ground veg.-tation. Sometimes taken to include *litter. (BCFT). Cf. Under-growth

Creeper. A plant, rarely with a woody stem, which grows mainly horizontally on or near the ground and puts out roots at intervals; a common misnomer for *climbers. (BCFT).

Crop, Cover. A subsidiary crop of low plants introdueed in a plantation to afford soil cover between or below the main crop. Also any crop used to protect land from erosion. A cover plant is one !zuitable for use as a cover crop. (BCFT).

Crop, Forest. The entire collection of trees (including bamboos) growing on a given area. Forest crops may be classified in terms of their stages of development as seedling crops, *thickets or *sapling crops, *pole crops, and *tree crops. Cf. Stand. The term is often treated as a synonym of stand, growing stock, and tree growth, but this is deprecated.

Crop, Final. That portion of the stand which it is intended to retain to the end of the rotation. (BCFT).

Crop, Main (Mens.). The stand left after thinning. Syn. Residual crop (or stand). Sometimes called Major crop (or yield). (BCFT modif.).

Crop, Nurse. A crop of trees or shrubs grown to foster the growth of another and more important tree crop in its early stages. (.BCFT modif.).

Crop, Pole. A *crop consisting of *poles.

Crop, Pure. A crop composed almost entirely of trees of one species, usually to the extent of not less than 80%. Syn. Pure forest; Pure stand. Cf. Forest mixed. (BCFT modif.).

Cron, Sapling. A *crop consisting of *saplings. Syn. Thicket crop.

Crop, Seedling. (a) A *crop consisting of *seedlings. (b) Also refers to a crop of trees, neither planted nor of coppice or root sucker origin, but originating in situ from natural regeneration. (BCFT modif.). Cf. Forest, seedling; Forest, high.

Crop, Subsidiary. That part of a stand which is removed in thinning. Syn. Intermediate yield.

Cross (To) (Genet.). Fertilization of the female *gametes of one individual by the male gametes of another, whether in nature or artificially. Often restricted to the crossing of individuals of unlike genetic constitution. Also the individual so formed. Cf. Self; Hybrid. (BCFT).

Crown. The upper branchy part of a tree above the bole. (BCFT).

Crown Class. One of the classes into which the trees forming a stand are divided on the basis of the type of crown and its position with reference to the ~(r~ne_ ral canopy and to the crowns of neighbouring trees also the trees fallino, into 'such a class. See Appendix 11. (BCFT modif.).

Crown Development. The. expansion of *crown measured as *crown length and *crown width.

Crown Height. The height of crown as, irteasured vertically from the ground level to the point half-v~-ay between the lowest (Ireen branch and the green branches forming green crown all round. Cf. Bole, clear; Crown length.

Crown Length. The vertical measurement of the crown of a tree from the tip to the point half-way between the lowest areen branchos forinim, grecti crown all round and the lowest green branch on the bole. Syn. Crown depth. See Crown development.

Crown Percent or Ratio. The ratio of the crown lenath to the total height of tree expressed either as a percentage or as a decimal fraction.

Crown Width. The maximum spread of the crown expressed as its widest diameter.

Cruise, To. Surveying of forest land to locate merchantable timber and estimate its quantity by species, assortments, size, products, quality or other characteristics; the estimate obtained in such a survey. (BCFT). Cf. Survey, forest.

Crumb (Ped.). A small aggregate of irregular shapen and 1/8 inch or less in diameter, formed by the cohesion of a number of soil particles. See Crumb 8tructure.

Crumb Structure (Ped.). A condition in which the soil particles form water-stable *crumbs largely by the physical and physico~chemical action of soil organic matter.

Crust (Ped.). A bard or brittle layer formed on the surface of many soils when dry. (SSSA).

Cull ; Cull, To. An inferior plant rejected from nur, sery stock ; to reject such plants.

Culm. The characteristic hollow and jointed stem of a bamboo or grass.

Cultivation, Shifting. A method of cyclical cultivation, chiefly in vogue in the tropics, where cultivators cut the tree crop, burn it, and raise field crops for one or more years before moving on to another site and repeating the process. (The use of the term ilroving agriculture" is deprecated). (BUT niodif.) Syn. Taungya (Burmese) ; Kumri (Tamil) ; Ponam (Malayalam) ; Podu (Tamil) ; Jhum (Assamese) and other local names.

Cultural Operations. A general term for operations, as a rule not directly remunerative, undertaken to assist or complete existing *regeneration, to promote the proper development of the crop or to minimize the after effects of felling damage. It, therefore, includes subsidiary *felling, *weeding, *cleaning, unreMUDerative improvement *fellings and *thinning in groups of *advance growth, girdling or poisoning of unwanted growth, climber cutting and even piling felling debris and controlled *burning, but usually not other ground operations, nor pruning. More often associated with silvicultural systems relying primarily on natural regeneration. Cf. Tending. (BUT modif.).

Cut Back, To. To cut flush with the ground. Apart from its application to the cutting of weeds and climbers in *tending, it is also used for the cutting of a *stool or any stem, in the *Pole stage and below with the object of obtaining superior coppice growth.

Cutting. (a) A short length of stem, branch or root placed in the soil, or other medium, in order that it may develop into a plant. Cf. Cutting, root and shoot. (b) American, Syn. forfelling.

Cutting, Root and Shoot. A young plant with a pruned tap-root and severed stem used for planting. Syn. Stump; Stump plant; Pruncheon. Cf Cutting (a).

Cutworm. The larva of species of the family Noctuidae (moths) which in feeding cuts through the base of seedlings. (BCFT).

Check dam: Structures of stone, wood or other available material built in a channel, stream or gully to slow and reduce the erosive force of running water (synoriym `gully plug’).

Clay: (1) Small mineral particles of the soil, less than 0.002 mm in diameter. (2) Soil material containing 40% or more clay, less than 45% sand, and less than 40% silt.

Clayey soil: Soils dominated by clay-size (less than .002 mm) mineral particles (sandy clay, clay, heavy clay)/

Compost (vegetable): Organic residue or a mixture of organic residue and soil that have been piled, moistened and allowed to decompose.

Compost. A mixture of vegetable materials, which has been allowed to rot, often with the addition of animal and/or mineral products; used as a soil improver. (BUT).

Conservation: The preservation of soil against deterioration and loss by using it within its capabilities, and applying the conservation practices needed for its protection and improvement. More specifically, soil conservation consists of using the land within the limits of economic practicability while safeguarding it against impoverishment or depletion by erosion, deposition, exhaustion of plant nutrients (through leaching, excessive cropping or overgrazing), accumulation of toxic salts, burning, waterlogging (inadequate drainage), improper cultivation or any type of improper use or failure to protect the land from soil loss or impairment of productiveness.

Conserved fodder : Treatment of fodder materials so as to conserve them for later use, for example by making hay, sileage etc.

Contour farming: Conducting field operations, such as plowing, planting, cultivating and harvesting on the contour or at right angles to the natural direction of slope.

Contour hedgerow: Dense, narrow hedges of woody perennials, planted along the contour of a slope to prevent soil erosion (synonyms: contour vegetation strips, barrier strips or hedges, horizontal hedgerows).

Contour furrows: Furrows plowed on the contour on pasture or range land to prevent soil loss and allow water to penetrate the soil. Sometimes used in planting trees or shrubs on the contour.

Contour ploughing (cultivation): Method of slowing surface run-off on gentle slopes by carrying out all tillage operations on the contours and forming a series of furrows along the contour.

Contour ridge (or bound): A series of parallel ridges on the contour of cultivated land which have grass or shrubs planted on them to control soil erosion and improve water management.

Contour strip cropping: The production of crops in comparatively narrow strips planted on the contour and at right angles to the natural direction of slope. Usually strips of grass or close growing crops are alternated with those in cultivated crops

Crop rotation: A pattern of using fields for specific crops in a specific sequence, usually to prevent soil exhaustion from a demanding crop or to control pests and disease

Crop sequence: The order and arrangements in which crops are grown in time or space, including fallows.

Cropping calender: The specific times during the year when crop activities take place (land preparation, sowing, weeding, harvest etc.).

Cropping sole: One crop variety grown alone in pure stands at normal density. Synonymous with solid planting; opposite of inter cropping.

Cropping systems: The cropping patterns used on a farm and their interaction with farm resources, other farm enterprises, and available technology which determine their make-up.

Cropping, patterns: The yearly sequence and spatial arrangement of crops or crops and fallow on a given area. The way in which crop (or crops) is (are) grown in time and/or space.

Cropping, upland: Crops grown on unirrigated land without storage of water.


Drainage (soil drainage): The permeability of a soil to water due to its structure, depth, position in the landscape, and/or composition which affects soil moisture status.

Dry farming: (1) Farming in semi-arid or arid regions without irrigation. (2) A system of fallow and stubble mulch designed to absorb and retain the precipitation which occurs.

Damping off. The killing of young seedlings by certain fungi that cause decay of the stem, or roots. (BCFT). d.b.h. abbr. for Di~meter, breast height.

Decalcification (Ped.). Removal of calcium carbonate ions from the soil by leaching. (SSSA).

Decay. The decomposition of wood substance by fungi, chemicals or beat. Two stages of decay, the "incipient" and advanced" are ordinarily recognized, though two supplemental ones, the "intermediate" and "final" stages are sometimes accepted. (BCFT).

Deciduous. (a) Shed naturally: applied to any plant organ or group of organs. (b) Also applied to such perennial plants as are normally leafless for some time during the year. Anton. Evergreen. Cf. Serotinous.

Defoliation. A reduction in the normal amount of foliaue due to insect or fungal attack or other injury may be partial or complete (BCFT).

Deforest, To. To remove the tree crop from a piece of land without the intention of reforesting. (The use of this word as a syn. for *dereserve is incorrect).

Degrees of Freedom (Stat.). The number of independent comparisons; the number of deviations, or iteins, minus the number of constants, computed frora the sample for fixing the points from which the deviations are measured. (USFT).

Delta: Deltas are somewhat like alluvial fans but form where a stream enters a lake or sea. The material being transported is then dumped in a roughly triangular area named after the Greek letter (delta). The deltas of some large rivers are hundreds of miles across. Deltas have high water tables unless the level of the lake or sea drops relative to the land surface.

Demarcate, To. (a) The setting out and marking the limits of a forest in terms of a notification under the forest law. (b) To mark out on the ground the limits of boundaries of a forest, compartment, crop or coupe, or plot of land for any special purposes. (BCFT modif.).

Denitrification (Ped.). The breaking down of nitrates and nitrites in the soil by the action of certain bacteria in the absence of oxygen, resulting in the evolution of free nitrogen. Cf. Nitrification.

Density, Canopy. The relative completeness of *canopy usually expressed as a decimal coefficient, taking closed *canopy as unity. (BCFT modif.). The following classification of canopy density is in vogue:Closed when the density is 1-0.

Dense when the density is between 0-75 and 1-0.

Thin when the density is between 0-5 and 0-75; and open when the density is under 0-5. Cf. Density, crop.

Density, Crop. The relative completeness of the tree stocking expressed as a decimal coefficient, taking normal number of trees, *basal area or volume as unity. Not to be confused with canopy *density. (BCFT modif.). The terms overstocked, full or complete, and incomplete are used to describe crop density, according as it exceeds, equals or is less than 1-0. Syn. Stocking; Density of stocking; Stand density.

Density, Stand. Syn.'Crop density.

Density of Stocking. See Density, crop.

Denude, To. To lay bare, usually with respect to the soil, by the removal of its vegetable cover or organic layers.

Deposit (Noun) (Ped.). 'Material left in a new position by some natural transporting agent such as water, wind, ice, or gravity. (SSSA).

Dereserve, To. To declare by law that an area of forest *reserve shall cease to be a reserved *forest. Syn. Disreserve (deprec.). Cf Di8afforeat; Deforest.

Desert Crust (Ped.). A hard layer, containing calcium carbonate, gypsum, or other binding material exposed at the surface in desert regions. (SSSA).

Design (Stat.). A method of arranging sample or experimental plots to minimize the effects of uncontrolled variations in fertility and other natural *factors and to make it possible to estimate the magnitude of such effects in relation to those due to variations in treatment (i.e. to controlled variations). (BCFT).

Development of Vegetation (Ecol.). *Succession resulting from autogenic factors. Syn. Autogenic succession.

Deviation. (a) (Man.). A departure from the prescription of a working plan. (b) (Stat). The difference between any particular observation in a set of observations and the arithmetic mean of the set. (BCFT modif.).

Deviation, Mean (Stat.). The mean value of the *deviations from the mean, taken irrespective of sign. (BCFT). Syn. Average deviation. Cf. Deviation, standard.

Deviation, Standard (S.D.) (Stat.). A measure of the *dispersion about the mean of the *population.

(BCFT). Cf. Devition, mean

Dew Point. The temperature at which water vapour present in the atmosphere is sufficient to saturate it. (BCFT).

Diameter, Breast Height. (Abbr. d.b.h.). The diameter of a *stem measured at *breast height; it is generally taken over bark for trees. (abbr. d.b.h.o.b.). (BCFT modif.).

Diameter, Exploitable. The minimum diameter at breast height at which trees are considered suitable for exploitation. (BCFT). See Girth, exploitable Cf. Size exploitable.

Diameter, Mean. The diameter corresponding to the mean basal area of a group of trees or a stand; sometimes used for the arithmetic *mean of the surnmated diameters. (deprec.). (BCFT). Cf. Diameter, crop.

Diameter, Mid. The diameter of a log or a stem measured half-way along its length. (BCFT)

Diameter Class. One of the intervals into which the range of stem diameters, e.g., of trees or logs, is divided for classification and use : also the trees, logs, etc., falling into such an interval. (BCFT).

Dibble, To. To sow seeds in Shallow holes made with a suitable instrument.

Dieback. (a) The progressive dying, usually backwards from the tip, of any portion of a plant. (BCFT). (b) The death of the shoot, the root remaining alive.

Dioecious. Applied to flowering plants having unisexual (male or female) flowers on separate individuals. Cf. Monoecious.

Diploid (Genet.). Having the usual two *chromosome sets; individual so constituted: the normal condition for vegetative tissues of higher plants. Cf. Haploid ; Meiosis; Polyploid. (BCFT).

Disaffo'rest, To (Deprec.). Often used as a synonym for *dere8erve; it also covers corresponding action in the case of Protected *Forests.

Disforest, To. Syn. (Deprec.). Deforest; Dermerve.

Dispersion (Stat.). The range of variation of the values in a set of observations of a character common to the individuals of a *population. (BCFT).

Disintegration: Physical processes are dominant during the formation of soil parent material by disintegration of rock. The crystals of various minerals contained in the original rock (primary minerals) are separated from one another by several processes. Ice formation, root penetration and expansion, and physical movements fracture rocks. The swelling and shrinking effects of wetting and drying and expansion and contraction caused by temperature changes also tend to disintegrate rock.

Dispersion: The separation of soil aggregates into individual particles is called dispersion. A sodium compound is added to disperse the soil colloids before a mechanical analysis is done.

Diversion : Diversions are a form of terrace designed to carry water away from an area where it might cause damage. Diversions typically carry more water and therefore need larger channels than most terraces.

Dominant (a) (Silvic.). A tree forming part of the dominant tree class. See Tree classes, Appendix 11. (b) (Ecol.). That constituent of plant community which exerts the greatest influence on its character. (c) (Genl.). A species of the upper *canopy. (BCFT).

Dominant Character (Genet ). One that is fully developed whether the *gene producing it is present in one or both members of the *chromosome pair, i.e., whether the individual is ":heterozygous or *homozygous Anton. Recessive character. (BCFT).

Dominated (a) (Silvic.). Applied to a tree that has its crown somewhat below the level reached by its dominant neighbours. (See Tree classes, Appendix 11). (b) (Ecol.). Applied to all forms of plants occupying a subordinate position with reference to dominant plants in the same community. (BUT modif.). See Sub-dominant.

Dormancy, Seed. A condition of mature viable seed in which germination is considerably delayed even though external conditions favour germination. (BCFT).

Dormant (or Latent) Bud. A bud that remains inac. tive for an indefinite period until stimulated into growth. (BCFT).

Drainage: - Drainage map on the large scale village cadastral map shows the important drainages. It is also supplemented by minor drainages of first & second orders from the SOI sheets, which were not available on the village map.

Drainage are presented in different colour indicating the drainage orders to help decide the potential of site/ streams terms of catchment & discharge, as higher the order higher will be the catchment & probable discharges, e.g. the third orders stream is recommended for locating the site of check dam, if other condition are satisfying.

Drainage system: Drainage systems may be described as random, regular, or interceptor, and as surface or subsurface. Random systems are used where there are scattered wet spots and the drainage system goes in whatever direction is expedient for carrying the water to an outlet. Regular systems use severalparallel ditches or tile lines to drain large, wet areas. Interceptor drains catch water from adjoining areas and keep it from running onto or seeping into the area being drained. Surface systems carry runoff water from the soil surface, and subsurface systems remove water from beneath the soil.

Drift (Geol.). Unconsolidated geological material that has been moved from the site of weathering. (BCFT).

Drift-wood. Timber that is a drift, beached, stranded or sunk (in a river, lake or sea). (See See. 45, Indian Forest Act). Cf. Waif.

Drill. (a) A line impressed on a seedbed for receiving seed.

    1. Any implement used for making pressed lines. (BCFT).

Dune. Moving hillock formed by shifting sand.

Durability. Of wood, the resistance offered by it against disease, decay and insect attack.

Duripan: Duripans are hard layers cemented by silica (SiO2) and other materials precipitated when water evaporaters into


Earth, Tropical Red. A uniform, friable and porous red soil which may contain a *laterite horizon. (BCFT). Cf. Loam, tropical red ; Lato8ol.

Ecoclimate. Climate operating as an ecological factor. The sum of the meteorological factors within a habitat. (BCFT).

Ecology. The study of plants and/or animals in relation to their *environment. See Autecology; Synecology.

Ecotone (Ecol.). The transition zone (or tension belt) between two adjoining *communities irrespective of their ecological status.

Ecotype (a) Ecol.). An element of a Linnaean species separable on the basis of its association with particular *habitat factors. (b) (Grenet.). A *biotype resulting from *selection with reference to a particular *habitat. (BCFT modif.).

Edaphic. Pertaining to the soil in its ecological relationships. (BUT). See Edaphic factors.

Edaphic Factors. Ecological influences characteristic of the soil, brought about by its physical and chemical characteristics.

Eluviation (Ped.). Removal of soil material from the upper to the lower ~!~borizon in solution or in colloidal suspension. (SSSA).

Endemic. (a) (Genl.). Confined in its indigenous occurrence to a particular region. (b) (Entom.). The normal population level of a potentially destructive species. CL Epidemic. (BCF.T).

Entomophilous plants. Plants characterized by *entomophily.

Entomophily. Pollination by insects.

Enumeration (Mens.). The counting, singly or together, of individuals of one or more speices in a forest crop and their classification by species, size, condition etc. (BCFT modif.). Enumeration may be complete (total ) or partial sample: a partial enumeration may be carried out on separate sample plots or in strips or lines. See survey, strip. Syn. Fores5t inventory; stocktaking. Cf. Cruise: Survey, forest.

Environment (Ecol). All the *biotic and abiotic factors of a site. Syn. Locality. (BCFT). Cf. Habitat; Site.

Epicormic Branch (or Shoot). Branches originating in clusters from a *dordmant or adventitious buds on the trunk of a tree or on an older branch, when exposed to some adverse influence, such as excessive light, fire and suppression.

Epidemic (Entom.). A marked and generally rapid increase in the population of a pest or agent of disease. Cf. Endemic. (BCFT).

Epiphyte. A plant growing on, but not nourished by, another plant. Cf. Parasite. (BCFT)

Equation, Regression (Stat.). A mathematical expression of the best fitting line or curve describing the relationship between two or more variables. (USFT).

Erosion. The removal of soil and rock material by water, wind and gravity; generally refers to accelerated *erosion.

Erosion, Accelerated. Abnormally rapid erosion in an environment disturbed by animal life, chiefly man, and due primarily to sach disturbance. (BCFT).

Erosion, Normal. The removal of soil and rock material by water, wind and gravity, in a manner and at a rate characteristic of the land surface in its natural environment; sometimes referred to as geological erosion. (BUT modif.)

Erosion. Gully. A form of *erosion caused by water, , in which gullies are produced.

Erosion, Rill. A form of *erosion caused by water, in which numerous very small and more or less straight channels are produced; the channels get obliterated by ordinary use.

Erosion, Sheet. Erosion of a fairly uniform layer of material from the land surface; often scarcely perceptible, especially when caused by wind. (BCFT).

Erosion. Splash. Erosion preceded by the destruction of the *crumb structure by raindrops or drip. (BCFT).

Erosion Pavement. A layer of more resistant material left exposed by the erosion of soil overlying it. (BCFT)~

Error, Standard (S.E.) (Stat.). A measure of textent to which repeated determinations of a quan~tl~ ty, of a sample *mean or of a comparison between the means, would vary among themselves. The standard error can be obtained by dividing the standard *deviation by the square root of the number of observations. (BCFT).

Establishment. Development of a new crop, naturally or assisted, to a stage where the young regeneration, natural or artificial, is considered safe from normal adverse influences such as frost, drought or weeds, and no longer needs special protection or tending operations other than *cleaning, *thinning and *pruning. (BCFT).

Establishment Period. The period between the initiation of natural regeneration or the formation of a plantation and its being considered *established. (BCFT).

Even-Aged. Applied to a stand consisting of trees of approximately the same age. Differences upto 25% of the rotation age may be allowed in cases where a stand is not harvested for 100 or more years. Anton. Uneven aged.

Evergreen. Never entirely without green foliage leaves persisting until a new set has appeared. H. Deciduous. (BCFT).

Exacting. Making high demands as regards soil and other factors. (BCFT). Cf. Tolerance.

Exotic. Not native to the area in question. Anton. Indigenous. (BCFT).

Engineering practices: Soil and water conservation practices which are primarily designed to change the slope characteristics of land so that the amount and velocity of surface run-off and erosion are reduced; for example, the use of systems or devices for the disposal of excess water such as terraces, contour furrows, diversions, dams, dikes, channels and tile lines.

Erosion. The removal of soil and rock material by water, wind and gravity; generally refers to accelerated *erosion.


Fallow: A period between crops during which land is rested from deliberate cropping. Natural vegetation maybe allowed to grow or fallow species may be planted to provide soil cover and/or more rapid regeneration of soil.

Farm pond: A small body of water retained behind a dam or held in a hole dug in the ground; of lesser area than a lake.

Fertility, Soil: The presence in a soil of the necessary elements, in sufficient amounts, in the proper balance and available for the growth of specified plants, when other factors, such as light, temperature, and the physical condition of the soil are favorable.

Fine Textured Soil: A soil predominately silt and clay.

Freehold: Tenure rights in which individuals or households own land and enjoy exclusive rights of use and disposal.

F (Genet.). Symbol for a *creneration; F, the first generation of a *hybrid; F, the second; and so on. (BCFT).

Faciation (Ecol.). A subdivision of an *association characterized by a particular group of Mominant, species and determined by minor climatic differenceq, (BCFT). See Climax unii8.

Facies (Ecol.). The *seral equivalent of *faciation.

Factor (Stat.). A circumstance that affects the result of an observation or experiment. Used especially of a set of related treatments in an experiment; each treatment of the set is a different state or level of the factor, e.g., different varieties of the same plant species, different levels of application of a fertilizer, or different methods of cultivation. (BCFT)v

Felling, Clear. Strictly, the felling of the whole stand. ing crop in one operation.

Felling, Cycle. The time which elapses between . successive main fellings on the same area.

Felling, Exploitation. Similar to a selective felling but the immediate yield of marketable produce is the primary consideration. See Felling, selective. (BCFT).

Felling, Final. The removal of the last seed or shelter trees after regeneration has been effected tinder a shelterwood system. (BCFT). The final stage in regeneration *felliDgs.

Felling. Improvement. The removal or destruction of less valuable trees in a crop in the interest of better growth of the more valuable individuals; usually applied to a mixed, *unevenaged forest. It may include thinning of closely stocked groups along with clearing and general assistarice to young growth of valuable species. (BUT modif.). Cf. Thinning.

Felling, Selection. The annual or periodic removal of exploitable trees, individually or in small groups, in an unevenaged forest in order to realize the yield and establish a new crop irregular in its constitution. The improvement of the forest is a primary consideration. (BCFT modif,).

Felling Selective. A term (deprec.) used to indicate the removal only of certain species of high value or trees above a certain size and of certain species, without full regard to silvicultural requirements. See Felling, exploitation. (BCFT.)

Felling Strip,. A method of felling whereby the ci p is removed in strips in one or more operations, usually for purposes of regeneration. (BCFT).

Felling Cycle. The time that elapses between successive main *felliDgS On the same area. Syn. Cutting cycle (,Am.).

Fertility Gradient. The variation in natural fertility V~ in any direction across an area of ground. (BCFT).

Fertilizer (Ped.). Any organic or inorganic material of natural or synthetic origin which is added to a soil in an attempt to provide plant nutrients. (SSSA).

Fidelity (Ecol.). The constancy with which certain speciesarefound in plant communities. The numbers I to 5 are generally used to indicate whether a plant is rare, seldom present, often present, mostly present or constantly present in the communities dealt with.

Field Moisture Capacity (Ped.). The amount of water, expressed in percentage of dry weight, that a soil can retain against the pull of gravity, i.e., after saturation and allowing excess water to drain away. Syn. Field capacity, (BCFT).

Fire, Creeping. A fire spreading slowly over the ground, usually with low flame. (BCFT).

Fire, Crown. A fire spreading through the crowns of trees and consuming all or part of the upper branches and foliage.

Fire, Forest. Any fire not employed as an indirect means of forest protection or management and which occurs on forest land. (BCFT modif.).

Fire Ground. (a) A forest fire that burns the ground *cover only. (b) In other countries, it refers to any fire that consumes the organic materials of the *forest floor and also burns into the underlying soil itself, as, for example, a peat fire. (BCFT motif.).

Fire, Surface (a) A forest fire which burns not merely the ground *cover but also the *undergrowth. In other countries, it refers to any fire that runs over the forest floor and burns only the surface litter, the loose debris and smaller vegetation. Syn. Ground fire (a). (BCFT modif.).

Fire Belt. A strip, open or planted with trees, maintained to check the spread of fire. (BCFT.).

Fire Break. An existing barrier, natural or otherwise or one prepared before a fire occurs, from which all or most of the inflammable materials have been removed, designed to stop light ground or surface fires and to serve as a line from which to work and *counterfire.if necessary; also to facilitate the movement of men and equipment in the fighting. (See Fire trace.). (BCFT modif.).

Fire Danger. A general term expressing the sum of the factors—

*risk, *hazard, inflammability, liability and safety—which determine whether fire will start, spread or do damage, and whether and to what extent they can be controlled. See discussion under Hazard. (BCFT).

Fire Line. A cleared permanent *fire break intended to prevent fires crossing from one area into another. Fire Patrol; Fire Watcher. A person employed to aid in afire.

Fire Protection. All activities concerned with protection of a forest area from damage by fire; comprises *prevention, detection, *presuppression and #suppression. Syn. Fire control. Fire conservancy. (deprec.).

Fire Risk The relative chance or probability of fire starting, determined by the presence or absence of casuative agencies. A component factor of the *fire danger in an area. See Hazard. (BCFT modifyire Scar. A healing or healed-over injury, caused by fire, on the trunk or other large member of a tree. (BCFT). Cf. Fire wound.

Fire Season. (a) The period of year during which forest *fires are likely to occur and become dangerous. (I) The period or periods of the year during which the use of fire in a forest is subject to legal restrictions. Cf. Close season. (BCFT}.

Fire Sub-Climax. A stable community of vegetation, consisting of fire hardy species, established in an area where fires are annual or common. May be a *sub climax or a *acre-climax.

Fire Trace. A cleared (often burnt) line used as a base from which to *counter fire. According to BCFT, it is also frequently used as a synonym for *fire break.

Flocculation. (a) The aggregation of fine suspended material into flock-like masses. (b) (Ped.). A condition in a soil where the individual fine particles are aggregated into comparatively loose floccules; this makes the soil relatively crumbly and pervious on drying, unlike *deflocculation which makes it relatively hard, compact and impervious. Anton. Defocculation. (BCFT modif.).

Fodder :- Fodder is defined as the coarse grasses fed to the livestock. There are three types of fodder available, i.e. Dry Fodder, Green Fodder and Concentrate.

Food :- Food is defined as "A material that can be ingested and utilised by the organisms as a source of nutrition and energ".

Food Plain (Ped.) Land bordering a stream, built of sediments from the stream and subject to flooding in times of high water unless protected artificially. (SSSA).

FIuting. The tendency to show irregular involutions and swellings on the bole just above the basal swell characteristic of some species, e.g. Teak. It is often unrelated to buttress formation. Cf. Buttress; Root swelling.

Foot, Running. An expression of measure for sawn timber, poles, etc., in terms of length, the other dimensions and often also the minimum acceptable length of the individual piece being specified. Syn. Linear foot. (BCFT modif.).

Foot, Square. A unit of area equivalent to a square of 1 foot side. Abbr. S. ft.; Sg. ft.

Forest. (a) (Genl.). An area set aside for the production of timber and other forest produce, or maintained under woody vegetation for certain indirect benefits which it provides, e g., climatic or protective. (b) (Ecol.). A plant *community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, usually with a closed *canopy. (c) (Legal). An area of land pros claimed to be a forest under a forest law. (B(:FT modif.).

Forest, Climax (Ecol.). One which is the culminating stage of the natural *succession in a *locality. See Climax. (BCFT modif.).

Forest, Closed. (a) Forest with a closed *canopy. (b) Forest in which specified acts such as hunting or burning are prohibited. (BCFT).

Forest, Communal. A forest owned and generally managed by a community such as a village, town, tribal authority or local Government, the members of which share in the produce or proceeds. Syn. Comm?`n~tyfore&t&. (BCFT). Of Forest, Panchayat; , Forest, village

Forest, Coppice. A forest consisting of trees derived mainly from Coppice shoots or *root suckers.

Forest, High. (a) A crop or crops of trees, normally with a closed and high *canopy and usually of seedling origin. (a) A forest which originated from seed. Syn. Seedling fore&l. (c) Sometimes used for a closed *forest of tall trees in contrast to *Savannah wood. land or *scrub. (BCFT).

Forest, Mixed. A forest composed of trees of two or more species intermingled in the same *canopy; in practice, and by convention, at least 20°:o of the canopy must consist of species other than the principal one. Syn. Crop, mixed. Cf. Forest, pure. (DEFT modif.). The species composing the mixture mat be distinguished as principal, accessory and auxiliary.

Forest, Panchayat. Any forest whose management is vested in a village panchayat i.e., a body of men elected by the villagers from among themselves for specific administrative or other purposes pertaining to the village\. Cf. Forest, communal; Forest, village.

Forest, Protected. A legal term for an area subject to limited degree of protection under the provisions of Chapter IV of the Indian Forest Act. Cf. Forest, ,~- reserved; Forest, protection.

Forest, Protection. An area wholly or partly covered with woody growth, managed primarily to regulate stream flow, prevent erosion, hold shifting sand, or to exert any other beneficial influence. Cf. Forest, production; Forest, protected.

Forest, Reserved. An area so constituted under the Indian Forest Act or other forest law. Syn. Forest a' reserve.

Forest, Riparian. Tree growth that owes its existence or condition to its proximity to a water course, lake, Vie' swamp or spring.

Forest, Riverain (Riverine). Forest growing along ~ rivers or in islands in river beds.

Forest, Sclerophyllous A type of forest developed in a climate with relatively wet-cold and dry-hot seasons. Characterized by trees and shrubs having leathery, usually small, leaves capable of withstanding the dry summer and functioning during the moist winter. See Sclerophyte.

Forest, Selection. (a) An *uneven-aged crop containing many, theoretically all, *age classes or gradations. See AII-aged. (b) A forest managed under the selection system.

Forest, Storeyed High. A crop of trees in which the *canopy can be differentiated into two or more strata. The *dominant species are usually different in each stratum. Syn. Two-storeyed and Multi&toreyedhighforeflt. (Appendix I).

Forest. Unclassed. Forest land owned by Government but not constituted into a reserved, village or protected forest.

Forest, Thorn. A forest in which the dominants are chiefly small thorny trees and shrubs.

Forest. Unclassed. Forest land owned by Government but not constituted into a reserved, village or protected forest.

Forest, Village. (a) A State *forest assigned to a village-communitv under the provisions of the Indian Forest Act. Cf. Forest panchayat; Forest, communal. (b) A forest estabished and managed for the supply of forest produce to a village.

Forest, Virgin. Natural forest essentially uninfluenced by human activity; it may or may not be a climax *forest. Syn. Primeval fore&l; Primary forest i (deprec.). (BCFT).

Forest Cover. All trees and other plants occupying the ground in a forest. (BCFT).

Forest Economics. Those aspects of forestry that deal with the forest as a productive asset, subject to economic laws. (BCFT).

Forest Influences. All effects upon health, climate, soil and water-supply resulting from the presence of forests. (BCFT).

Forest Mensuration. The determination of the dimensions, form, volume, age and increment of logs, single trees, stands or whole woods.

Forest Offence. Any act punishable under a forest law or rules made under it.

Forest Pathology. The science that deals with diseases of forest trees, crops and products. (BCFT).

Forest Policy. The general principles determined according to social and economic objects, adopted for the creation and/or maintenance of forests and their use. (BCFT modif.).

Forest Privilege. A temporary (or terminable) and defined facility involving the use of the forest or its produce, sanctioned by the owner of a forest to individuals or communities. Syn. Forest concession. Cf. Forest right.

Forest Produce. All material yielded by a forest estate. Generally defined in Forest Acts, Regulations, etc., and may include earth, stone, gravel and minerals. Classified as (1) Major Forest Produce—*timber, *smallwood and firewood and (2) Minor Forest Produce—

all forest produce, other than major forest produce, including grass, fruit, leaves, animal products, soil and minerals. (BCFT modif.). (The IV World Forestry Congress has recommen~led that Minor Forest Produce should be called Forest Produce other than wood ).

Forest Protection. The activities directed towardly the prevention and control of damage to forests by man, animals, fire, insects, disease, or other injurious and destructive agencies. (BCFT).

Forest Type. A category of *forest defined generally with reference to its geographical location, climatic and edaphic features, composition and condition.

Forest Utilization. The branch of forestry concerned with the harvesting, conversion, disposal and use of forest produce. (BCFT).

Forest Valuation. The branch of *forest economics concerned with the valuation of forest estates, forest crops and their components. (BCFT modify).

Forest Village. A village community established in a reserved or protected forest for the purpose of maintaining a supply of local labour.

Forester. (a) Primarily a person engaged in the profession of forestry. (6) A subordinate forest officer superior to a Forest guard, in protective charge of a *beat or a group of beats or in direct charge of forest works. (BCFT modify..

Forestry. The theory and practice of all that consti tutes the creation, conservation and scientific man. agement of forests and utilization of their resources.

Forestry, Aesthetic. The practice of forestry with the object of developing or maintainir~g a forest of high scenic value. (BCFT).

Forestry, Commercial. The practice of forestry with the object of producing timber and other forest products as a business enterprise. (USFT).

Forestry, Farm. The practice of forestry in all its aspects on farm or village lancls, generally integrated, with other farm operation. (1'iCFT).

Forestry, Industrial. The practice of forestry to sustain a given industrial enterprise, such as a saw mill, pulp mill, chemical plant or a combination of these. (USFT'.

Forestry, Multiple-use. The simultaneous use of a forest area for two or more purposes, often in some measure conflicting, e.g., the production of wood with forest grazing and/or wild life conservation. (:ZICFT).

Forestry, Protection. The practice of forestry with the primary object of: (1) protecting lands whether those upon which the forest is situated or those at a distance from it, against wind and water erosion; (2) conserving water supplies for human consumptiOrI, fish culture, etc.; (3) reducing hazards from flood damage to human life and property; and (4) amelioration of adverse climatic effects. (USFT a' modif.).

Form. (a) (l\Iens.) The rate of *taper of a log or stem. (bJ (Genl.) Less precisely the shape of the whole or part of a tree. (BCFT). (c) (Ecol.). Sometimes used in the sense of life *form.

Form Factor (Mens.). The ratio of the volume of a tree or its parts to the product of its *basal area and height. Depending on the height of measurement of basal area and on the parts of the tree considered the following classes of form factor are distinguished:-


(i) Artificial form factor, when the basal area is measured at any convenient height, usually breast height and the volume refers to the whole tree both above and below the point of measurement;

(ii) Absolute form factor, when the basal area is measured at any convenient height, and the volume refers only to that part of the tree above the point of measurement; and

(iii) Normal (or true) form factor, when the basal area is measured at a constant proportion of the total height of the tree, e.g., 1/l0th, 1/20th, etc., of the total height and the volume refers to the whole tree above ground.

(ii) and (iii) are little used now. Unless otherwise stated, form factor implies artificial form factor taken at 4-1/2 above ground.

Formation. (a) (Silvic.). Includes all the operation" contributing to the creation of a new crop up to the point where it is considered *established. (b) (Ecol.). The major unit of vegetation comprising the climax communities of an area uniform in its major physiognomic features. (BCFT).

Formation, Closed (Ecol.). One in which the individuals are so close as to be in contact with one another,. above the ground. (BCFT).

Infrequency. (a) (Ecol.). A measure of the *abundance of a species present in a mixed *community. Six grades are usually differentiated by occular estimate or more precise methods, viz., very abundant (v.a.); abundant (a); frequent (I); occasional (o); local (1); rare (r) and very rare (v.r.). (6) (stat.), The number of observations assigned to any of an arbitrary set of classes. Syn. Class frequency. (BCFT modif.).

Frost, Ground. Freezing confined to ground level, ice crystals forming on surface objects, soil or ground vegetation. (BCFT).

Frost, Pool. The accumulation to a considerable depth of heavy cold air flowing down into natural depressions from the adjoining areas. This has a more deleterious effect on vegetation than ground *frost, as the freezing effect extends to a considerable height. Cf. Frost, adjective; Frost, radiation.

Frost, Radiation. Frost occurring on nights with a clear sky, produced by loss of heat by radiation. (BCFT), See Frost, ground. Cf. Frost, advective; Frost, pool.

Frost Cracks`. Fissures in trees caused by frost which close later and are covered with callus growth. They usually occur at the base of old trees. (GW modif.).

Frost Level. The height above ground up to which frost injury is liable to extend in a given locality. Syn. Frost line. (BCFT).

Frost Locality An area in which frosts are more frequent and Fore intense than in the district generally. (BCFT). SN7n. Frost spot; Frost hole; Frost hollow; Jo Frost pocket.

Frost –Free Season. The period between the last injurious frost in the spring and the first injurious frost in the autumn. (BCFT).

Fume Damage. Injury by fumes or gases; often not distinguished from *smoke damage. (BCFT).


Gall. A pronounced, localized swelling with greatly modified tissue structure, evoked on plants as a response to irritation by a foreign organism. A plant tumour. (BCFT).

Gamete (Genet.). A male or female reproductive cell, typically the product of *meiosis, capable of uniting in the process of fertilization with one of the opposite ~¢', sex. Cf. Zygote. (RCFT).

Gene (Genet.). A unit factor of heredity, which is normally associated with a fixed position on a *chromosome, is transmitted in the *gametes from parent to offspring, and governs the transmission and development of a hereditary factor. (BCFT).

Generation. All those individuals of an organism which are separated from a common parent or ancestor by an equal number of reproductive cycles. (BCFT).

Genetics. The science of heredity (BCFT).

Genotype. (a) (Genet.). The entire genetic constitution, expressed or latent, of an organism. Can also be used of the genetic constitution of an individual with respect to any limited number of *genes under examination. A group of organisms having the same genetic constitution. Cf. Phenotype. (b) (Taxonomy). The species selected as the type of a genus. (BCFT).

Geological Map: - Geological map presents the broad lithological unit (rock types) indicating the stratigraphic positions and mineral composition. However ample scopes are there to further identify the local variation in physical & hydrological characteristics like degree of weathering etc. This map also shows the position of lineaments with reference to Khasra numbers which provide a great helps to locate

its position in the field which was otherwise difficult to locate. Lineaments are considered as better site for locating ground water development (dug well, tube wells) and also for artificial recharge.

Geomorphology :- The primary relief elements of the Earth's surface are formed by movement of the crust. Geomorphology is the study of the origin of secondary topographic feature, which are either carved by erosion in the primary elements or built up of the erosional debris.

Geomorphological map: - This theme map presents various landform and their characteristics. The landform is also identified with its limiting factors like degree of dissection and depth of weathered mantle etc., considering the third dimension (vertical) into account. Hence information of landform is available for individual land parcel and it is of great use while planning for the conservation measure for land and water.

Geophyte (Ecol ). A class of Raunkiaer's Life *forms having perennating organs, e.g., buds, buried in the soil.

Geotropism. The influence of gravity on the direction of growth of plant organs; positive when growth is towards the centre of the gravity of the earth, negative when away from it. (BCFT'. Cf. Heliotropism.

Germination. (a) (Bot.). The resumption of growth of a seed or spore. Usually recognized by rupture of the seed coat or spore wall and appearance of the radiele, hypocotyle or thallus. (b) (Silvic.). The development of a normal seedling from a seed. (BCFT modif.).

Germinative Capacity (or Power). (a) The percentagc, by member, of seeds in a given sample that actually germinate, irrespective of time (Syn. here Germination per cent); or that germinating within twice the *energy period (Baldwin). (b) The total number of seeds that germinate in a germinator, plus the number of sound seeds remaining at the end of the test, expressed as a percentage of the total sample (Holmes). Syn. Germinative power (Deprec.). (BCFT).

Germination per cent. A general term for the percentage, by number, of seeds in a given sample that actually germinate. Sometimes loosely used as a Syn. (deprec.) for *germinative capacity or *germinative energy. (BCFT). Cf. Plant per cent.

Girdle, To. (a) To cut through the bark and outer living layers of wood in a continuous incision all round the bole of a tree. Syn. Ring or Ringbark. (b) Destruction of the living tissue in a ring round the stem, branch or root, by fungi, insects, etc. (BCFT modif.).

Girth, Breast Height. The girth of a stem measured usually over bark at abreast height. Abbr. g.b.h.

Girth, Exploitable. The minimum girth at breast height at which trees are considered suitable for conversion. (BCFT). See Diameter, exploitable. Cf. Size, exploitable

Girth, Quarter. The girth of a tree or log divided by four. A measure commonl:,7 used in countries where volumes are reckoned by hoptus feet. (B0FT).

GIS :- A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a composite of computer-based tools and methods for the integration of spatial data from many different sources and for the analogies, modeling and display of the data.

Gradients: Gradual changes in the value of a given variable (e.g., rainfall, slope, population density).

Gradoni. Small *terraces (about 1 meter wide and not necessarily continuous) made along the contours of a slope with a tilt inwards to the slope. (BCFf).

Graft. To apply a portion—the *scion—of one plant to a *stock, usually rooted, which is another plant or another portion of the same plant, with the object of securing vegetative union between the two, the scion being detached from its parent plant either before or after the operation. Also applied to the composite individual so obtained. (BCFT).

Graft, Natural. A natural vegetative fusion of the tissues of contiguous parts of different individuals, or sometimes of different members of the same individual. Cf. Root graft. (BCFT).

Graft Hybrid. A *graft in which the genetically distinct tissues of *stock and *scion are intermingled in the organs developing from the point of union. Syn. Chimaera. (BCFT).

Granular (Ped.) Applied to a which the soil aggregates are more or less sub-angular or rounded in shape of size upto ~ inch in diameter. Characteristic of *mul].

Grassed water way: A natural or constructed waterway, usually broad and shallow, covered with erosion-resistant grasses, used to conduct surface water from cropland.

Grasslands: Plant communities with a vegetative mixture of herbaceous plants dominated by the family Graminae. The main function of grasslands is `to provide herbaceous feed for large herbivores, both wild and domesticated.....; [grasslands] are not necessarily free of trees’.

Grassland. A community in which grasses predominate trees are either altogether absent or present in relatively small number.

Gravel (Ped.). Soil particles over 2.0 mm. AIso applied to soils composed largely of such particles. See Soil texture.

Grazing. (a) The eating of any kind of standing vegetation by domestic livestock or wild animals. Sonnetimes limited to the eating of *herbage in contrast with *browsing. (BCFT). (b) Used sometimes as a synonym of *forage.

Grazing, Controlled. Conservative *grazing through controlling the period and incidence by the movement of livestock in different parts of the area in prescribed sequence.

Grazing, Rotational. The use of different parts of the grazing area or pasture in orderly sequence (BCFT). The use of this term is sometin;es restricted to grazing involving short rotational closures of a week or a month or more at different seasons in the veer, grazing involving longer closures of a year or more at a time, being called periodic grazing.

Grazing' Seasonal. The grazing of an area only during a certain period or periods of the year, roughly corresponding to one or more of the seasons. (BCFT). Cf. Grazing deferred.

Grazing, Selective. The preferential and sometimes excessive grazing of certain plants in mixed pasture.

Grazing Capacity. The amount of grazing that an area can support under controlled *grazing expressed as number of animals or equivalent cow units per acre. Syn. Optimal *grazing incidence.

Grazing Incidence. The amount of grazing in an area expressed as number of animals or equivalent cow a' units per acre. Xyn. GIrazing intensity.

Green Manuring. Turning a crop under, while green or soon after maturity, for the purpose of soil ; improvement. (U8DA modif.).

Gregarious. Habitually living and/or reproducing in more or less pure groups or communities, as opposed to individuals in a mixed crop. Anton. Sporadic. ,,~ (BCFT). '

Nongregarious Flowering. The general flowering, within one or a few years, and over considerable areas, of all or most of the individuals of certain species that do not flower annually; in some cases followed by the death of the plant—e.g., bamboos and Stroeilanthea. .. Anton. Sporadic powering.

Ground Flora (Layer). The lowest stratum of a many-layered plant *community consisting of herbs, grasses, low shrubs and Bryophytes. Often limited to the Bryophytes (pref.), the taller plants being distinguished as the *field layer. (BCFT).

Growing Stock. The sum (by number or volume) of all the trees growing in the forest or a specified part of it (BCFT). Cf. Crop,fore&t.

Gullies: Short, V-shaped channels formed by erosion, cut rapidly from hillsides on banks by intermittent flows of water; a hill that is too large to be smoothed out by ordinary tillage.

Gully Erosion: Removal of soil by running water, with formation of channels that cannot be smoothed out completely by normal cultivation.

Gully (Ped.) A large intermittent water course with steep sides; an obstacle to agricultural machinery. (SSSA).

Gully Control. (S.C.). Control of erosion in gullies or gullied areas by means of structures, e g., check dams, grarlillg, establishment of suitable vegetation, or by diverting water away from gullies to controlled areas. (USDA modif.).

Gully Plugging, (S C ) Construction of *check dams in gullies caused by accelerated erosion. (BCFT).

Gum, Wound. A dark amorphous substance produced in the wood of hardwoods and some conifers in response to injury, infection or other irritation. (BCFT).

Gummosis. (a) In wood anatomy, partial or complete destruction of cells, the resulting mass being transformed into gum which occludes the newly-formed cavity and occasionally the cells adjacent to it. (b) In forest pathology, a disease process in hardwood trees, characterized by gum exudation. Cf. Resinosis. BCFT).


Halosere (Ecol.). A *sere which has its commencement in salt water.

Haploid (Genet.). Having one *chromosome set only; the individual so constituted. This is tl~e cl~aracteristic condition of sexual cells. Cf. Diploid; Meiosis. (BCFT).

Harticulture:- The term horticulture is used for furit plantation. Horticulture crops can be cultivated in degraded and denuded waste land to help control the soil erosion and conserve water and others income opportunities in areas where cropping is otherwise not profitable.

Hazard (Protect). (a) A measure of that part of the fire danger which is dependent on the materials available for burning, and its relative amount, class, character, moisture content and condition. (h) Inflammable material constituting a threat of special suppression difficulty or of likelihood of ignition because of location.

Note :--ln forest protection, the following terms have each the limited meaning given against it:

HAZARD concerns inflammable material only.


INFLAMMABILITY is the susceptibility of the material to ignition.

RISK refers only to the agencies that cause fires.


DANGER is the sum of them all, plus damage and other factors.

As used by the general public, no distinction is consistently made between hazard and risk . (BCFT modif.).

Hazard Reduction (Protec ). Any treatment of inflammable material, other than accidental burning, that results in diminishing the chances of fire starting or spreading in them. (BCFT modif.).

Heart. The central core of a tree or log; usually the pith with a small portion surrounding it. Syn. Pith.

Heartwood The inner layers of wood, which in the growing tree, have ceased to contain living cells. It is generally darker in colour than *sapwood, though not always clearly differentiated from it. Syn. Duramen; true wood.

Hectare. Area measure in the Metric system, equal to 10,000 sq. meters or 2.471 acres.

Height (Tree). The straight line distance between ground level and the extreme top of a tree; usually measured on slopes on the uphill side of the tree. Syn. Total heiphi. tBCFT modif.).

Height, Mean. The height corresponding to the mean *diameter of a group of trees or the crop *diameter of a stand. Cf. Height, crop.

Height, Stump. The height of the top of a *stump above ground. (BCFT).

Heliotropism. The response in growth or position of plant organs to the direction of light; positive when growth is towards the light, negative when away from it. (BCFT.). Syn. Phototropism. Cf. Geolrop;&m.

Helophyte (Ecol.). A class of Raunkiaer's life *forms comprising plants with perennating buds lying muddy non-saline soils; a marsh plant.

Heterogamy. (a) (Genet.). The condition of having *gametes differing in size and/or constitution. (b (Bot.). That of having flowers of two or more sexual types in the same inflorescence. (c) (Entom.). That of a *parthenogenetic generation which alternates with a truly se2rllal one. (SCOT).

Heterosis (Genet.). The manifestation in a *hybrid of a degree of vigour superior to that exhibited by either of its parents. Syn. Hybrid vigour. (BCFT).

Hibernations Passing the winter or cold season in an inactive state. Cf. Aestivation. (a). (BCFT).

Histogram (Stat.). A diagram representing the *frequencies of the values of a *variate between specified limits by means of rectangles of equal width whose areas are proportional to the frequencies.K (BCFT modif,).

Histogram (Stat.). A diagram representing the *frequencies of the values of a *variate between specified limits by means of rectangles of equal width whose areas are proportional to the frequencies.K (BCFT modif,).

Holard. The total water content of the soil.


Holard = *Echard + *Ghresard.

Hole, Bore (a) A- hole formed in a cell wall by the dissolving action of an advancing *hypha of a woodinhabitirlg fungus. Syn. Hyphal hole. (b) A hole in plant tissues, e.g., bark or a wood surface, made by a boring organism. (BCFT). See P~-holes; Shot-holes; II or'''-holes.

Hole. Emergence. A hole made through the outer hark, wood surface, or fruit for the emergence of insects. Syn. Exit hole; Flight hole. (BCFT).

Homogamy. (a) (Genet.). Inbreeding due to isolatiOII. Cf. Hetero!Jamy (a). (by (Pot.). (1) The condition of having flowers all of the same St'X, viz.., male, female and hermaphrodite. Cf. Heterogamy (b). (2) Having starmells and pistils & flower at the same time. (BCFT).

Homozyguos (Genet.). An individual is said to he homozv'aolls in respect of a particular character when the pair of *genes carrying that character are similar. Anton. Heterozygoas. ( BCFT).

Horizons. The layers into which a *soil profile Soil, is divisible by simple field examination. Subdivisions of horizons are termed zones, and are indicated by the use of a numerical after the lelter symbol for the horizon. The following horizons are recognized:-

Horizon : Surface *litter. (Sometimes called the L. layer).

A' Horizon : Humus and *-- the layers consisting of *Mull e atter frequently composed of F and H layers. (See under Mor). -

A Horizon : The uppermost horizon of the mineral soil. Essentially a horizon of eluviation (washing out).

B Horizon : Essentially an illuvial horizon enriched with material washed down front A hmizon and generally much more compact,

C Horizon : The uppermost laver ofparerit material which is in proce8s of forming true soil under the influence of weathering.

A/C Horizon : The ruid-horizon of recently developed, generally calcareous ~sojls, in which the quantity of unweathered rock increases with depth to merge into unweatherd parent material,

G. (or Gley) Horizon : This occurs between Ba'nd C horizons in soils with imperfect or impeded drainage.

Host. An organism on, or within which, another organism feels and develops. (BCFT).

Host. Alternate. A second host species essential for the completion of the life history of a parasitic organism. (BCFT).

Humification (Ped.). The decomposition of plant and animal matter into amorphous, relatively insoluble organic compounds, usually dark in colour. (RCFT).

Humus: (1) Organic matter that has reached a more or less stable advanced stage of decomposition. It is usually characterised by its dark color, considerable content of nitrogen, a carbon-nitrogen ratio approaching 10:1 and by various physical and chemical properties, such as high base exchange capacity, water absorption and swelling. (2) The plant and animal residues in the soil that have undergone some appreciable degree o decomposition.

Hydrological: Pertains to relation of water with soil characteristics such as surface water logging, depth to groundwater and flows of surface water (rivers, streams etc.).

Hydrology: The pattern of water flow in a given region or basin.

Hydrogeomorphology :- Hydrogeomorphology deals with the ground water occurrence, its distribution and has the inter-relationship with rack types, geological structures, land forms and surface recharge conditions.

Hydrogeomorphological Map: - This theme is the derived interpretation of two maps namely geological & geomorphological map supplemented with structural and hydrological information. Map unit indicates the prospects of for GW development and also for storage or recharge structure in the field. While planning optimal landuse, it serves as an important input information.

Hyaromorphic Soils (Ped.). Soils developed in the presence of excess water. (SSSA).

Hydrophilous (E,col.). Inhabiting wet land or water. ( BCFT).

Hydrophyte (Ecol.). (a) A plant which grows wholly or partly immersed in water. (BCFT). (b) A class of Raunkiaer's life *forms comprising plants with perennating buds lying in water.

Hypha. One of the thread-like elements which form the *mycelium of a fungus. (BCFT).

Hypsometer. An instrument for determining the height of standing trees from observations taken at some distance from the tree. (P;CFT'. See Dendrorneler. parasitic upon another


Infiltration: The downward entry of water into soil or other material.

Inter cropping: The practice of growing annuals or relatively short duration crops in the formative years of orchards in the inter spaces of parennials.

Irrigation: The application of water to soil to assist in the production of crops.

lluviation (Ped.). The process of deposition of soil material removed from one horizon to another horizon of the soil, usually from an upper horizon to a lower horizon in the profile. (SSSA).

Impeded Drainage (Ped.). Condition in which downward movement of graviational water is hindered. (SSSA).

Impoverishment (of Soil). The deterioation of the inherent fertility of the soil. See Soil, degraded.

Incompatibility. (a) (Genet.). Inability of the *gametes of two organisms to unite and reproduce sexually; applied in particular to pollen. Syn. Intersterility. (b) (Grafting). Inability of the tissues of *stock and *sicon to form a permanent union. (c) (Biochem.). Inability of one substance to mix with another without undersirable reaction; used, e.g., with reference to insecticides where incompatibility involves loss of efficiency on mixing. (d) (Biol.). A difference in the physiology of a parasite and its host which limits or stops the development of the former. (BCFT).

Increment. The increase in girth, diameter, basal area, height, volume, quality, price or value of individual trees or crops during a given period. Syn. Accretion; Growth (BCFT modif.).

Increment, Annual. The *increment during one year. (BCFT).

Increment, Current Annual. Strictly the *increment in a specific year. Usually taken as the periodic annual *increment over a short preceding period. Abbr. c.a.i. (BOUT modif.).

Increment, Light. The rapid diameter increment of trees due to light stimulus following increment *fellings.

Increment, Mean Annual. The total increment up to a given age divided by that age. Abbr. m.a.$. (BCFT).

Increment, Periodic Annual. The average annual increment for any short period. Abbr. p.a.$. Sometimes referred to as the "periodic mean annual increment" (deprec.). (BCFT modif.).

Increment per cent. The average annual growth in volume (or basal area) over a specified period, expresed as a percentage of the volume (or basal area) either at the beginning, or more usually half-way through the period. (BCFT).

Infestation. The occurrence of any pest in unusual abundance over a limited area. Applied to single trees or stands. (BCFT

Inflammability (Fire). The relative susceptibility of materials to ignite readily, i.e., the ease with which materials ignite regardless of their quantity. A part of the *fire danger on any area. See discussion under Hazard. (BCFT modif.).

Inoculation. Deliberate introduction of living or killed organisms, usually micro-organisms, into a new environment such as soils, culture media or the living body of a higher organism, animal or plant. (BCFT modif.). See Infection, lac.

Insolatian. (a) Solar radiation, as received by the earth; also the rate of delivery of such radiation per unlit of horizontal surface. (b) The effect of excessive sunlight on trees or other plant growth previously grown under more shaded conditions. (BCFT). See Bark scorch.

Interplant To set young trees among existing forest growth, planted or natural; applicable also to planting land partly occupied by *scrub. Cf. Planting improvement. (BCFT).

Invasiorn The movement of one or more plants from one area into another and their establishment in the latter. It comprises *migration, *ecesis and *competition as its essential parts. It may populate a bare area or produce new developmental stages.

Isohyets :- These are imaginary lines connecting places/values of equal rainfall.


Kallar. Soil emorescence appearing on the surface of Usar or alkali *sons. It consists mainly of carbonates, sulphates and chlorides of sodium with any of them as the chief salt. Also applied to such a soil. See Soil sali1le.

Knot. A portion of a branch embedded in the wood by the natural growth of the trees. The knot is `'loose or `'tight,' depending on whether the branch was - dead or living at the time it was embedded. (BCFT).

Kumri. See Cultivation, shift'?'g; [aungya.


Land capability: The suitability of land for use with out damage. Land-capability as ordinarily used in the United States of America, is an expression of the effect of physical land conditions, including climate, on the total suitability for use without damage for crops that require regular tillage, for grazing, for woodland, and for wildlife. Land-capability involves consideration of (a) the risks of land damage from erosion or other causes, and (b) the difficulties in land use owing to physical land characteristics including climate.

Land Capability is the suitability of land to different types of usage based upon its physical characteristics. Its classification is an interpretative grouping of land parcels mainly based on the inherent soil characteristics, external land features and environmental factors that limit the use of land.

Landforms: Features of geomorphology, such as slopes, hills or mountains, scarps etc. of the land.

Landuse/ Landcover: - This theme maps represent the broad landuse and landcover features, as first land information source. The secondary information can be cross checked with this map. Also the details information can be gathered PRA, with the help of this map for locating and updating the pre

vious information.

Land-use system: A group of producers with a roughly homogeneous environmental resource base and similar management systems for soil, water, crops, livestock and tees. Similar to a `farming system’, but includes other forms of land management such as forestry and range land. A given physical region may have several land-use systems.

Loam: (1) Soil containing a relatively even mixture of sand and silt and a somewhat smaller proportion of clay, generally a desirable quality. May be subdivided into texture classes like sandy loam, loam, silt loam and clay loam. (2) Specifically, soil material containing 7 to 27 percent clay, 28 to 50 per cent silt, and less than 52 per cent sand.

Lac Resinous exudation secreted by the *lac insect in the form of incrustation over it and from which shellac is made.

Landslip. A small landslide

Laterite. A *soil horizon indurated with hydrated iron and aluminium oxides, formed in humid tropical climates; generally brick-red or yellowish brown in colour and having a cellular structure. Pisolitic laterites consist of fairly small ironstone nodules and are often called "murram". Vesicular laterite& have a more uniformly indurated layer penetrated by many channels. The pisolitic type lies over the vesicular. See Ferrallite. (BCFT modif.).

Laterization. The process by which igneous rocks, usually of basic composition, weather in tropical climates under certain conditions of temperature and rainfall leading to the abstraction of silica from the silicates and accumulation of hydrated oxides of iron and aluminium. (BCFT modif.).

Layer. An undetached branch lying on or partially buried in the soil, which strikes root and is capable of independent growth after separation from mother plant. (BCFT).

Leader. The terminal shoot of a tree or plant. Syn. Leading Whet. (BC

Leader, Multiple Forked growth resulting from the development of more than one leader; usually due to injury. (BCFT modif.).

Leaf Mould. A loose term for more or less decon~l~oge~l *litter with little or no admixture of mineral soil; sometimes identified with the A° horizon. (BOOT modif.). See Soil Horizons; also Humus.

Lesion. A circumscribed diseased area (BCFII).

Liane or Liana. A tropical *climber.

Life Cycle (Entom.). The period of time between fertilization of the egg and the death of the individual that develops from it. (BCFT).

Life History (Entom.). The continuous story of the activities and duration of each stage in the complete *life cycle of a species during one *generation or annual series of generations. (BCFT).

Light-Demander. A species that requires abundant light for its best development. Cf. Shade-bearer; Shade~demander.

Lime Concretion (Ped.). An aggregate cemented by precipitation of COCOS. (SSSA).

Lithosere (Ecol.). *Xerosere which originates on a rock surface:

Lithosols (Ped.). An azonal group of soils having an incomplete $solum or no clearly expressed soil morphology and consisting of a freshly and imper. fectly weathered mass of hard rock or hard rock fragments. (SSSA).

Live stock :- Livestock is the term used to denote animals kepton farm, and also referred to as stock. This term does not include poultry birds.

Loam. Tropical Red (Ped). A uniform red plastic loam without distinct *horizons or ironstone nodules. Cf. Latosol; Earth, tropical red. (BCFT).

Loamy (Ped.) . Includes all sandy loams, clay loams, loam, silt aml silt-loam textures. Sometimes subdi" vided into moderately, coarse-textured, mediumtextured, and moderately fine-textured groups (SSSA).

Loess (Geol.). Deposits of wind-blown fine sand, silt or rarely clay. (13(1FTJ

Log. The stem of a tree or a length of stem or branch after felling and trimming. (BCFT).

Lop and Top. The branches and top cut from a tree, generally one felled or fallen. (BCFT).


Masonry dam: A dam built of rock without the use of mortar; a rubble dam.

Mean annual rainfall : The statistically `average amount of precipitation which falls in a given location in al year’. Micro catchments: Small bunds, usually trapezoidal or semi-circular, designed to trap and concentrate run-off water from a small catchment area, so that it infiltrates the soil in a limited area. Used on 3-5% slopes.

Mixed Cropping: Growing more than one (crops) species on the same piece of land at the same time, or with a short interval.

Mixed Farming: Farming involving crop and animal production which is functionally linked (e.g., use of manure on crops, use of ex-plough).

Monoculture: Repeated growing of the same crop on the same land.

Mulch: A natural or artificially applied layer of plant residue or other material such as stones, sand, paper, or brush on the surface of the soil.

Mulch : Crop residues or other organic litter used to cover the exposed soil between growing crop plants. Used to reduce erosion from rainfall and wind, to suppress weeds, and to added organic matter to the soil.

Multiple Cropping: Growing more than one crop on the same piece of land during one calendar year.

Maggot. Legless larva, usually of Diptera, found in decomposing organic matter. (BCFT).

Marking. Selection of trees to be cut or retained in a felling or thinning operation, the selected trees being indicated by a mark made with a scribe, or with a chisel or marking hammer on a blaze.

Marl. Calcareous *clay used as a dressing to improve soils, particularly through the addition of clay to light soils. (BCFT).

Maturity. (a) (Biol.). The stage at which a tree is capable of reproducing itself by seed and has attained its full height. (BCFT). (a) (Man.). The stage at which a tree or crop has attained exploitable *size or *age. Cf. Overrnature. See Maturity, economic.

Mean, Arithmetic (Stat.). The result of adding together a set of values and dividing by the number of values, due regard being paid to sign. (BCFT). This is sometimes distinguished as the algebraic mean, the arithmetic mean then taking all the signs as positive.

Meiosis.(Genet). The two cimsectlt~vt nuder ~1 (reduction) divisions that halve the *chromosome nun1ller, e g., from *diploid to *haploid. Cf. Mitosis. at. (~61,''1'),

Mendelian Inheritance (Genet.). That controlled by pairs of *genes whose members are, in sexually reprodueing organisms, derived respectively from the two parents. These genes do not contaminate one another. have a low *mutation rate, and *segregate aCCOrCiillg it) tile laws or Nlen~lcl. (l,i l;'T).

Mesophyte (Eeol.). A plant whose normal *habitat is neither very wet nor very dry. (BCFT) Cf. Xerophyte; Hydrophyte.

Metamorphic Rock (Pedn. llocks derived from preC:iiStiTZ`; loeJ`s b! mineralogical, crIe,Ilical and sit uctural alterations due to geologic processes originating within the earth. Igneous and sedimentary r or lo may be changed to metamorphic rock or one metamorplYic rock mav be changed into another metamorphie rock. (SSSA)

Micro watershed :- Micro watershed area represent the smallest rank unit of stream network of an area

Mili-watershed :- Mili-waterhsed is further smaller unit and recommended for watershed planning activities in national watershed guide lines. It comprises a village cluster containing 10-15 villages in general. Extent of about 5-10 Sq.km. & may encompasses one village or part of it. Micro watershed is considered a basic unit for implementation of conservation activities for soil and water in the field.

Mineralization (Ped.). The conversion of an element that is immobilized in some organic combination or | available form as a result of microbial decomposition. (SSSA).

Mitosis (Genet.). Vegetative nuclear division, the *chromosome number of the daughter nuclei remaining the same as that of the parent. Cf. Meiosis. (BCFT).

Moisture Equivalent. The weight of water, expressed as a percentage of the oven-dry weight, that remains in a previously saturated soil after the moisture in it was reduced after centrifuging in a standard apparatus at a force 1000 times that of gravity. (BOUT modif.).

Monoecious (Bot.). Of flowering plants, having the male or female sexual elements borne separately on the same individual. Cf. Dioecious. (BCFT modif.).

Mor. A type of *humus which is practically unmixed with the mineral soil and usually shows a well defined line of separation from it. Usually more or less matted and compacted, with very high acidity, poor nutrient supplies, very restricted fauna, and absence of earthworms. (BCFT modif.). Syn.. Raw humus; Duff. Cf. Mull; Humus; litter

Mortality. Death or destruction of forest trees as a result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire and other factors. (USFT).

Mosaic. (a) (Ped.). A group of soils which always occur in association with one another in a manner not dependent on topographical features. Anton. Catena. (b) (Ecol.). An arrangement of plant communities in a mosaic pattern, in contrast to donation. (BCFT). (c) (Bot.). A patchy variation of normal green colour, the symptom of many virus diseases in plants. (PDB modif.).

Mull. A type of hllmlls layer having a loose *crumb structure, mixed below with the mineral soil; arson iated with relatively low acidity, high nutrient supplies and rich soil fauna. Syn. Mild humus. Cf. Mor. .(BCF'P modif.).

Mutation ((tenet.). A change in the structure of a unit of heredity, i.e., the inception of a heritable variation. (BCFT).

Mycelium. The vegetative portion of a fungus. Composed of *hyphae. (BCFT).

Mycorrhiza. (a) The phenomenon of the association probably *symbiotic or at least virtually non parasitic, between the root or *rhizome of a green plant and a fungus. (b) The structure produced from the combination of the modified rootlet with fungal tissue. F,ctotrophic, endotrophic and ectendotrophic mpcorrhiza are distinguished. (BCFT modif.)


Neutral soil: Soil in which pH ranges from 6.5 to 7.5.

Necrosis. Death of plant cells, usually resulting in a darkening of the tissue. (BCFT).

Nitrogen Cycle (Ped.). The sequences of transformation undergone by nitrogen wherein it is used by one organism, later liberated upon the death and decomposition of the organism and is converted by biological means to its original state of oxidation to be re-used by another organism. (SSSA).

Non-Porous Woods. Those that do not contain vessels or pores. Applies to all conifers and a few broad leaved species. (USFT modif.). Cf. Porous woods.

Nursery Dry. A nursery that is maintained without any irrigation or other artificial watering.

Nursery, Field. A term sometimes used for a tempo. rary nursery formed in or adjoining the planting areas.

Nursery, Wet. A nursery that is maintained by irrigation or other artificial watering during the dry ,~ periods.

Nursery Stock. Generally, whatever is grown in a nursery for planting out; also plants supplied from a nursery. Cf. Wilding. (BCFT

Nymph. A mobile immature stage of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. (BCFT).


Occlusion. The healing over or closing of wounds in plants whether of natural or artificial origin. (BCFT).

Outturn. (a) The quantity of produce obtained from anv unit of a forest. Cf. Yield. (b) The quantity of sawn timber obtained from a given quantity of round logs. (BCFT modif.).

Overmature. The condition of a tree or crop which has passed (a) the exploitable age or size, or (b) the age after which it may be expected to become progressively unsound. (BCFT modif.).

Overwood. Tile uppermost storey of a storeyed high #forest or of any crop in which two or more distinct crown layers occur, either temporarily or permanently, e.g., seed bearers over regeneration, standards over coppice or a crop of trees over bamboos. Cf. Cf. Underwood.

Out-migration: The total number of people from the region who have moved permanently outside the region; `net’ out-migration is the total number who have moved out minus the total number who have moved in, or immigrated.


Parasite. An organism that draws a part or the whole of its nourishment from another living organism. Parasites are of two classes: (lj Fac?`ltative, capable of existing independently of a living host; (2) Obligate incapable of existing independently of a living host. Cf. Saprophyte. In the case of insects, a parasite feeds on a single individual of its host. Cf. Predator. (BCFT).

Park, National. An area owned by the State and dedicated statute to the conservation of scenery and the na,turaland historic objects of national >,g'~ritha~ue and to the conservation of wild animals and plants by such means as leave them uninlpairc¢l for the enjoyment of plescllt and future gellerati`'u.

Parkland. Open grasslancl containing single trees or groups of trees. See Savannah woodland.

Pasture or Grassland:- There are cultivable lands put are being used as permanent pastures and meadows in hill slopes and village common lands in the plains.

In India out of a total geographical area of 329 m.ha. area of 12.01 m.ha. has been classified under

permanent pastures and other grazing lands. (Das 1985).

Pathogen. A organism causing disease. (BCFT).

Peat. The residues of natural vegetation which have been affected by processes of anaerobic decomposition, usually in waterlogged conditions. (BCFT)

Pedology. The scientific study of the soil. (BCFT).

Penning Site. Sites inside forests set apart for use as cattle hells, particularly during seasons of fodder and water scarcity in villages and outlying forests. Also f called forest pen and Yenta.

Period, Emergence (Entom.).The interval between the free appearance of the first and the last individuals of larvae or adults of a particular generation of an insect species. (BCFT).

Period, Preparatory. (a) The period preceding a change of silvicultural system during which special operations are undertaken to prepare for conversion. (I) A period during which the conditions of canopy and soil are being modified with a view to rendering them suitable for natural regeneration before regeneration fellings are begun. (BUFT). See Felling, preparatory.

Permeability (Ped.). The rate at which water moves through a soil under a standard pressure gradient. Usually defined as the amount of water traversing 1 sq. cm. of soil surface under a pressure gradient of one dy ne per cm. (BCFT). Cf. Infiltration capacity.

pF Value (Ped.). The energy (force) with which water is held in a soil expressed as the logarithm `'f the height in centimetres of a column of water of equivalent weight. e.g., a pF of 2 indicates that the force with which water is retained is equivalent to the weight of a water column 100 cm. in height;. The scale of values ranges from O which corresponds to a pressure of 1/lOOOth atmosphere, to 7 corresponding to 10,000 atmospheres.

Phenology. The science that deals with time of appearance of characteristic periodic events such ails leaf shedding, etc., in the life cycle of organisms in Nature especially as those events are influenced by environ~ental factors. (BCFT modif.).

Phenotype. An organism judged by its visible charac,,, ters. Cf. Genotype. (BCFT).

Phloem. The tissues of the inner bark serving for the transport of elaborated foodstuffs and characterized by the presence of sieve tubes. (BCFT). See Cambium.

Pioneer (Ecol.). (a) A species that invades a bare area such as a newly exposed soil or rock surface. (b) Any new arrival in the early seral development of plant communities, usually with particular reference to certain species whose presence appears to promote the establishment of more exacting "successor) species; often applied to a species planted to prepare a site for the latter. (BCFT). ()f. Succession.

Plan, Felling cum Regeneration. A detailed scheme for fellings end regeneration where by arrangements can be made to extract timber before regeneration begins Especially necessary in Burma owing to the long period tat least 5 years) which must elapse, after the teak is girdled, before extraction can be completed and regeneration started. (B(3FT modif.).

Plan of Operations. A tabular statement showing the order and extent of all works to be carried out during one or more years. Such a plan is based on the prescription of the working plan where one exists, otherwise on general silvicultural principles as modifled by financial provisions.

Plant Box or Tray. A box or tray in which small plants are raiserl and transported to the forest for planting out. Syn. Transplant boa. (BCFT).

Plant per cent. Percentage of the number of the seeds in a sample that develop into seedlings at the end of the first growing season (lIolmes). (BCI~'T modif.).

Plantation Journal. A register in which all details of work carried out in a plantation' and other points of interest concerning it, are recorded from time to time.

Planting, Mound Planting in prepared mounds. '4 (BCFT).

Planting. Notch. Planting in notches, made with a mattock or spade, the notches being closed by pressure. (BCFT) Syn. Notching: slit pTant'nq.

Planting, Ridge. Planting in prepared ridges. (BCF-1~).

Planting, Stump. Planting of *stumps.

Planting, Turf. A method of planting on inverted turves, which are often cut from the drains. (BCFT).

Planting Plan. A plan for an area to be planted, showing the general lay-out of blocks, compartments sub-compartments, firebreaLs, and a road system and prescribing the areas and species to be planted in each year along with the method of planting. (BCFT).

Plastic (Ped. ). Capable of undergoing deformation without rupture. (SSSA).

Pneumatopllore. A knee-shaped or spike~lil~e projection of the roots of swamp trees enabling the submerged roots to obtain oxygen. (BCFT).

Podzolization. A soil forming process of cool, humid climates in which leaching by organic acids removes all alkalies and alkaline earths in solution and translocates iron and aluminium sesquioxides from the A layer to the B. where they form the *ortstein layer. A podzol possesses Ao' Al, A2 and B and C horizons. The name refers to the ash like colour of the characteristic A2 zone. See Soil Ilorizon&. (BCFT).

Pole. A young tree from the time when the lower branches begin to fall off to the time when the rate of height growth begins to slow down and crown expan~ sion becomes marked. Cf. Sapling.

Pollard. A tree whose stem has been cut off in order to obtain a Hush of shoots. Usually above the height to which browsing animals can reach. Cf. Coppice.

Population (Stat.). The aggregate of all units, however, sampled, forming the subject of study. Syn.'' Universe. (BCFT).

Post-Climax (Ecol.). A plant *community more exacting than the climatic *climax of a given region, and found under exceptionally favourable site conditions within that region. (BCFT). Cf. Pre-climax; &ubclimax. See climax.

PRA :- Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) technique is considered as faster means of collecting information from the primary sources like villagers or end users by the way informal conversation in hostile environment of their own.

Precipitation. Deposits of atmospheric moisture in liquid or solid forms, i.e., rain, snow, sleet, hail dew and hoarfrost. (USFT modif.).

Precision (Stat.). The degree of concentration of estimates about their mean value iimepeatecl sampling, or the reliability of the determination of the true mean value derived from such estimates The reciprocal of the *variance is a measure of the precision. ( [3Ct'T).

Preclimax (Ecol.). The plant community immediately preceding in seral development the climatic *climax of the region, and found under site conditions drier than are usual in the climate of the region. Cf. `x<' Post-climax; sub-climax.

Predator. An animal that preys externally on others. A predator usually destroys several *hosts; an animal *parasite usually lives in or on a single host. (BCFT ~ modif.).

Predominant. Taller trees among dominants whose crowns reach above the general level of the upper

canopy and determine the top level of the canopy.

Prevention, Fire. Those fire-protection activities concerned with the attempt to reduce the number of fires through education, reduction of hazard, rewards and concessions for cooperation in fire-protection and imposition of penalties according to law in cases of incendiarism, etc.

rickout, To. To transplant small seedlings individually into nursery beds or boxes. Cf. Iineout. - (BCFT).

Probability (Stat.). The *frequency expressed as a proportion or percentage of the total frequency, with which, in a long series of trials, strictly comparable circumstances will produce a specified value of a variable rather than any other conceivable value. (BCFT)

Proclirnax (Ecol.). A term applied to all communities that suggest something of the permanence or extent of a climax, but are not typical of existing climate. Includes sub-climax, *sereclimax, *pre-climax, *post-climax and *disclirnax.

Provenance. The geographical soul ce or place of origin from which a given lot of seed or plants was collected; tile material from such a source or origin; often restricted to imply material from a specified crace. Syn. Provenience (deprec.). (BCFT)

Pruning, Root. The pruning of roots, particlll.lrly for the purpose of encouraging the deN elopment of a compact, fibrous root system (BCFT).

Psammophyte. A plant adapted to santlN tracts lily seashore, dunes, etc.

Puddle, To. (a) To dip the roots of young plants in thin mud to conserve moisture. (b) To work claN:ev oil with SN<ItCl'tt) a pasty c edition (RCI~"I').

Pulpwood. Wood cut or prepared primarily for manufacture into wood pulp. (BCET).

Percolation: The downward movement of water through the soil, especially the downward flow of water in saturated or nearly saturated soil.

Permeability, Soil: The quality or state of a soil or of any horizon in the soil profile relating to the transmittal of water or air to all parts of the mass.

PH: A numerical measure of the acidity, or hydrogen ion

Porosity, Soil: The percentage of the soil (or rock) volume which is not occupied by solid particles, including all pore space filled with air and water. The total porosity may be calculated from the formula: Percent pore space =1/Volume weight/specific gravity X 100. The total porosity includes both capillary and non-capillary porosity. Capillary porosity refers to the small pores that hold water by capillarity, while the non-capillary porosity refers to the larger pores that will not hold water by capillarity. A soil with low porosity, especially low non-capillary porosity, may be called a "non-porous" or "dense" soil, while a soil with high porosity, especially non-capillary porosity, may be called a "porous" or "open" soil.

Puddling: The act of destroying soil structure. Puddling reduces porosity and permeability. This process is sometimes used to reduce leakage of reservoirs and canals.


Quadrat. A small field study unit or sample area, usually a square metro or a *rmilliacre in size, established for the purpose of detailed observation. (BCFT).

Quincunx. A group of five points, four of which form the corners of a square with the fifth as centre. In planting, an arrangement in which an extra plant is placed in the centre of each square of four plants. ( BCFT).


Randomized. Arrangement (Stat.). One determined entirely bv chance, as for example, when one out of all possible arrangements is selected by lot. See Design. (SCOT).

Recessive Character (Genet.). A character that does not develop unless the *gene responsible for it is present in both members ol the chromosome pair, i.e., unless homozvgous. Anton. Domirlant character. (BCi4'T modif.).

Reconnaissance (Foresty). A preliminary inspection of survey of a forest area, made in order to gain a general knowledge of all facts likely to be useful in rleternlilling future management Cf. Crnise. (BCFT).

Reconnaissance Report (Forest). A report made to the forest owner (government or others, based on a reconnaissance and a review of past management, recom~nencling the general forest policy to be pursued and the general lines of ~r.anagemellt to he adopter!, with possible alternatives, in order to obtain the maximum benefits from the area. Belter known in India as the preliminary Working Plan Report which after sanction, forms the basis of instrlictiolZs given to the Working Plan Officer. (BCFT modif.).

Recruit. One of the individuals forming the *recruit,,, meet.

Recruitment Those trees which have entered a particular category during a specified period, seedlings which have recently appeared in n regent r.itic.n alpha, 01' stools which hay`` grown into a partial ular diameter or girth class. Syn. lngrowth. (BCFT modif.).

Reforest, To To restock felled or otherwise cleared woodland. Cf. Afforest; Deforest. Syn. Reafforest. ( BCFT'.

Regosols (Ped.). An *azonal group of soils lacking definite genetic *horizons and deriving from deep, soft mineral deposits, such as *loess or glacial drift. (SSSA).

Regression (a) (Ecol.). Reversion to some earlier stage of succession consequent on the introduction of an adverse factor. Syn. Retrogression. (b) (Stat.). The relationship between specified values of one variable and the means of all corresponding values of another variable dependent on the first (BCFT).

Regression Coefficient (Stat.). In a linear regression equation. the increase il. the ciependerlt varia~ole corresponding to unit increase in the independent. (BCFT),

Relict (Ecol.). A *community or species which, through the operation of a compensatory or protective feature, has survived some important change that has altered the general vegetation of the surrounding torritory. (BCFT).

Relief: - Relief is a surfacial topographic expression of physical form or ruggedness of the terrain.

Relief map: - There was no information available on village map about topographic elements. Topographic information has been made available through map merging technique. The relief map shows the topographic feature in term of contours, which defines the absolute height above mean sea level and also the relative height from the surrounding vicinity/ neighborhood. Relief shows the relative height, which is important for deciding upon the land utility and its limitation for certain type of landuse.

Remote sensing :- Remote sensing is the acquisition of physical data of an object without touch or contact (Lintz & Simonett 1976)

Remote Sensing is the science of deriving information about an object from measurement made at a

distance from the object i.e. without actually coming in contact with it. (D.A. Landgrebe, in Swain & Davis 1978)

Remote Sensing is the practice of deriving information about the Earth's land & water surfaces using images aquired from an overhead perspective, using electromagnetic radiation in one or more regions of the electromagnetic spectrum reflected on emitted from the Earth's surface. (James. B. Champbell 1996)

Rendzina (Ped.). A grey or black soil derived from soft ca]careous rocks, in which CaCOy is sti]1 present at the base of the rooting zone. Horizons A, A/C and C are present, but no recognizable B. See Soil Horizon&. The surface leas a high organic content and well defined *crumb structure. (Name rlerived from Polish for good arable land). (BCFT).

Replication (Stat.). Repetition of a treatment or set of treatments in several plots undertaken in order to provide an assessment of the variability amongst plots treated alike and to increase the precision of comparisons. (BCF'1').

Reproduction. (a) A synonym for *regeneration but more usually applied in forestry to a forest crop obtained by natural methods. (b) The process by which an organism reproduces (e.g., sexual or asexual reproduction. (BCFT modif.).

Reversion (Genet.). The reappearance of an ancestral character which was not exhibited by the immediate parents and which has usually not appeared for several generations. (BCFT modif.).

Rhizobia (Ped.). The bacteria capable of living in symbiotic relationship with leguminous plants in nodules on the roots, the association usually being capable of fixing nitrogen (from the generic name Rhizobium). (SSSA).

Rhizome. A stem of rootlike appearance, lying on or under the ground, which roots and sends up shoots. Syn. Root stock.

Ring, Annual. A layer of wood produced by the growth of one year. Syn. Annual layer.

Ring, False. The layer of wood less than a full y ear's growth and seldom extending completely round the stem; formed when diameter growth is interrupted and resumed (luring the same growing season. See Ring, growth.

Ring-Porous Woods. Hardwoods in which the pores of the spring *wood are distinctly larger than those of the summer *wood and form a well-defined zone or ring. Cf. .1)&use-porou8 wood8.

Root, Stilt. An adventitious root which errierges from the butt of a tree above ground level, so that the tree appears as if supported on flying buttresses, e.g., mangroves of the genus Rhizophora. Syn. Prop-root. (BUT).

Root Sucker. A shoot rising from the root of a woody plant. Syn. Sucker. (BCFT).

Rot. A state of decay in wood, Rot and decay are more or less interchangeable terms, though rut generally implies a more advanced and obvious stage. See Decay.

Royalty. A prescr ibed fee for forest produee payable to the owner of the forest. (BCFT

Ruderal. A plant that grows on wasteland, old fi(Ids, %iaysides,, etc. Cf. Pioneer. (FWFT).

Runoff :- The precipitation reaching the land surface starts infiltrating into the soil. Runoff occurs only when the rate of precipitation exceeds the rate of infiltration, and water starts flowing over the land as overland flow.

Runoff may be defined as the portion of the precipitation that makes its way towards streams, channels, takes or oceans as surface or sub-surface runoff.

Rust. (a) A fungus of the order Uredinales, characterized by obligate parasitism and as many as five spore forms, frequently with alternate hosts. Spores of the more eviden~ stages are usually orange to rusty brown in colour. (b) A disease caused by a rust fungus. (BCFT).

Rain-fed Cultivation: Crop production which depends entirely on natural rainfall to satisfy plant moisture requirements.

Range : (1) Land that produces primarily native forage suitable for grazing by livestock. Also, forest land producing forage. Usually relatively extensive areas of land suitable for grazing, but not suitable for cultivation, especially in arid, semi-arid, or forested regions. (2) A unit of grazing land used by an integral herd of livestock. (3) The geographic area of occurrence of plants or animals.

Rill Erosion: Removal of soil by running water with formation of shallow channels that can be smoothed out completely by normal cultivation.

Rotational Cropping: The repetitive cultivation of an ordered succession of crops (or crops and fallow) on the same land. One cycle often takes several years to complete.

Rotational grazing: Grazing system in which the pasture is subdivided into a number of enclosures with at least one more enclosure than groups of animals.


Sample, To (Stat.). To select and measure or record a sample of a *popalation. (BCFT).

Sampling Unit (Stat.). The ultimate unit of assessment or measurement in a sample. lt may be the individual, any given number of individuals, a given area of ground, etc. Cf. Plot. (BCFT).

Sanctuary. An area constituted by competent authority in which killing and capturing of any form of wild life is prohibited, except with permission and the boundaries and character of which are sacrosanct. See Park, national.

Sanitation, Forest. The destruction, removal or treatment of infected or infested material for the purpose of reducing disease and insect incidence in the forest. (USFT).

Sap. (a) The fiuid contents of the living cell. Syn. Cell sap. (b) The fluid in plant tissues. (BCFT).

Saprophyte. A plant which is incapable of synthesizing all its nutrient requirements from purely inorganic substances, and which depends on dead organic food. Cf. Parasite. (BCFT),.

Sapwood. The outer woody layers of the stem or log which, in the growinLr tre,~, contain living cells. The sapwood is generally lighter in colour than the heartwood. (BCFT modif.).

Saturation Deficit. Tile difference between actual and maximum vapour pressure at the same temperature. Cf. Humidity, relative. (BCFT).

Scion. Anv unrootcd portion of a plant used for grafting or buddin(f on to a rooted stock. See Graft. (BCFT).

Sclerophyte. A plant adapted to a climate with a wet winter and a hot dry-summer characterized by thick, hard, usually small, evergreen leaves capable of fiinctioning during winter and withstandii)g the dry summer. See Forsst Sclerophyllous.

Seed Bearer. A tree used for, or capable of, providing a stipply of seed, especially one reserved for this purpose dw-ing regeneration *felling. Syn. Mother tree; Seed tree.

Seed Drill. A device for sowing seed in lines Also the line as sown. (BCFT)

Seed Pellet. One or more seeds compressed in a matrix of various materials, e.g. clay, fertilizer, rodent and insect repellents, to form a coherent ball. Often used in aerial sowing. (BCFT).

Seedling, Whippy. A seedling which has not yet developed a rigid woody stem.

Selection (Genet.). Choice of superior types for breedina Purposes.

Semi-Parasite. A green plant having its own root system, but partly dependent for its nutrition on functional connection with the roots of other plants. (BCFT).

Seral (Ecol.). Successional as contrasted with *climax. (BCFT). See Succession.

Sere (Ecol.). (a) The series of plant *communities resulting from processes of *succession. (b) Any recognizable stage in plant succession. (BCFT).

Slesquioxides (Soil). Oxides of iron and aluminium (Fe,O, and Al,O) present in the soil; usually represented as R,O,.

Shade Demander. A species requiring at least in its early stages some degree of shade for its normal development. Cf. Light demander; Shade bearer.

Silvics. The studv of the life history and general chara(,teristics of forest trees and crops, with particular n-4erence to environmental factors, as the basis for th~, practi,'-e of "silviculture. (Am.), (BCFT).

Silvicultural Oparations, Subsidiary. A general term for all operations carried out immediately after the main *fellings; beFlides *cultural operatiUDS proper, this might indtide other specific operations.

Skeletonization. The removal of the softer tissues of leaves leaving the mid-rib, veins, etc, as a skelet. (BCFT modif.).

Slash. The unusable residue after logging, viz.,- branches, tops, bark, unutilizable lous, uprooted stumps and broken or uprooted trees left on *th(- area. Also any large accumulation of debris after wind oinre. (BCFT modif.).

The following terms are used to qualify slope:

Level 0 to 5o

Gentle 5o to 10o '

Moderate 10o to 15o.

Steep 15o ' to 25o

Very steep 25o ' to 45o

Precipitous Over 45o '

Cf. Aspect.

Slope Map: - The slope information is very important for planning aspect of landuse. The slope is represented in different standard slope classes. The individual land parcel now can readily be identified for its slope magnitude & slope direction in the surroundings.

Smallwood. Wood below a certain girth or diameter, but often also with a lower limit. For statistical work, wood below 20 cm. girth overbark in Europe and between 8 and 2 inches diameter overbark in India, is considered smallwood. Smallwood volume is ordinarily inclusive of bark. (BCFT modif).

Softwoods. A conventional term for the conifers and their timber, as distinguished from broad leaved trees and their timber which are called hardwoods. In India, however, the use of the teim is not thus restricted, but extends generally to all timber that has no definite heartwood and species of rapid growth and relatively poor durabilit,

Soil, Aeolian. A soil formed from materials transported and deposited by wind, e g., sand dunes, *Ioess deposits and wind deposits of fine volcanic ash. (BCFT,,.

Soil Erosion: - Soil erosion can be defined as removal, movement and deposition of soil. Particles by wind, water, gravity, and or other natural processes from one place to another place.

Soil, Peat. See Peat. Relatively uncommon in India.

Soil, Prairie. A nature soil developed under grass in cool, semi-arid or moderately humid climates. Resembles *chernozern but receives sufficient rainfall to prevent accumulation of CaCO, or - CaSO,. (BCFT modif.).

Soil, Sedentary. Soil formed from the parent material in situ. Syn. Primary soil; Residual soil. (BCFT).

Cf. Soil, secondary.

Soil, Aggregate. A single mass or chuster of many soii particles held together, such as clod, prism, crumb or granule. (USFT). 'See Soil structure.

Soil Drainage. The process, natural or artificial, by hich excess water in the *soil is removed.

Sand: (1) Mineral soil grains 2.00 to 0.05 mm. In diameter according to U.S. Department of Agriculture standards; 2.00 to 0.02 mm. According to the International System. (2) Soil material containing 85% or more sand; percentage of silt, plus 11/2 times the percentage of clay, shall not exceed 15%.

Sandy Soils: Soils which are dominated by sand-size (.2 - .02 mm) mineral particles (including sand, loamy sand).

Seasonal migration: Movement of people from one residence to another at particular times of the year, e.g., for seasonal employment or to herd livestock at seasonal grazing areas.

Seepage: (1) Water escaping through or emerging from the ground along an extensive line or surface as contrasted with a spring where the water emerges from a localized spot. (2) The process by which water percolates through the soil.

Sheet Erosion: The removal of a fairly uniform layer of soil or material from the land surface by the action of rainfall and run-off water.

Silt: (1) Small mineral soil grains intermediate between clay and sand; 0.05 to 0.002 mm. in diameter according to U.S. Department of Agriculture standards; 0.02 to 0.002 mm. in diameter according to the International System. (2) Water borne sediment with diameters of individual grains approaching that of silt. (3) Soil material containing 80% or more spilt and less than 12% clay.

Silting:The deposition of water-borne sediments in lakes, reservoirs, stream channels, or overflow areas. It is caused by a decrease in the velocity of stream flow and a corresponding reduction in the amount and size of solid material which can be carried in suspension.

Soil Profile: A vertical section of the soil from the surface through all its horizons into the parent material.

Soil: Soil is a natural body developed from weathered minerals and decaying organic matter, covering the earth in a thin layer. It is a natural medium on the surface of the earth in which plants may grow.

Stall Feeding: Intensive system of livestock feeding in which purchased or `cut-and-carry’ feeds represent a high proportion of total feed, and in which animals are seldom permitted to graze or browse directly.

Soil Mantle. All the layers lying above the unweather,ed rock. (BCFT).

Soil Monolith (Ped.). a *soil profile and (SSSA).

Soil Morphology (Ped.). 1. The constitution out of the. soil body as expressed in the kinds, thicknesses, and arrangement ofthe *horizons in the profile, and in the texture, structure, consistence, porosity and 001OUr of each horizon. (SSSA).

2. The properties, collectively, of the soil body or any of its parts. ~ Includes physical, chemical, mineralogical and biological properties). (SSSA).

Soil Population (Ped). All of the organisms living in the soil; the combined soil fauna and flora. (SSSA).

Soil Pores (Ped.). Interstices between soil particles (voids), (SSSA).

Soil Porosity. The extent to which the gross volume of the soil is unoccupied by solid particles. The air space in a soil at *field moisture capacity is termed "non-capillary porosity"; that portion in a soil that is not filled by water when the soil is wet, but well drained, is known as "capillary porosity". (BCFT).

Soil Reaction. The acid or alkaline reaction of a soil as measured by one of a number of methods and expressed in ternis of pH units. See pH value. (BCFT).

Soil Salinity (Ped.). The amount of soluble salts in a soil, expressed in terms of percentage, parts per mil. lion, or other convenient unit. (SSSA).

Solum pl. Sola. The upper, most weathered part of the *soil profile; includes the A and B horiZODS. (SSSA).

Somatic (Genet.) Pertaining to the body of an organism as distinct from its reproductive germ cells, (BCFT).

Sowing,Line. Sowing in drills or single lines as distinguished from sowing in strips Cf. Sowing strip.

Sowing, Patch - Spot. Sowing a number of seeds in specially prepared patches. Syn. Spot sowing.

Square Planting. Planting in a square. pattern' i.e. with the plants occupying the four corners of the successive squares.

Stagheaded. The condition Of a tree with dead upper branches projecting above the green portion of the crown. (BCFT). Syn. Top-dry.

Sake, To. (a ) To Support plants with stakes against loosening by wind, snow, etc., (BCFT),

Stand. Loosely used as a synonym foor *crop. More precisely, an aggregation of trees r other growth ossessing sufficient uniformity in composition, constitution, age, arrangement or condition, to be distinguished from adjacent crops and forming a silvicultural unit. (BCFT modif.).

Standard. A tree selected to remain standing over a younger, or new crop, for some special purpose(s), e.g., shelter, production of quality timber, seed, etc. BC of each. for-one or two

Standard Ist Class ;-2nd Class. Standards retained cfor one or two coppicc rotations respectively. (BCFT).

Stem. 'The principal axis of a plant from which buds and shoots are developed; in trees, stem, bole and trunk are synonYmous. (BUT).

Stem Analysis. The analysis of a complete stem by measuring annual rings on a number of cross-sections at different heights in order to determine its past rates of growth. Cf. Stump analysis.

Steppe. A wide, treeless plain of grassland, characteristically xerophytic. (BCFT).

Stolen. A creeping stem or runner capable of rooting and forming a new plant. (BCFT).

Stool A living *stump expected to coppice or maintained to produce *cuttings, *layers, etc. (BCFT.). Cf. Stump.

Storey. A horizontal stratum or layer of *canopy in a plant community. Forests often have two or more canopy layers, each a storey. Cf. Canopy.

Strain (Genet.). A term loosely for *race (depree.), More strictly, a group within a variety that constantly differs in one or more genetic factors from the variety proper. (BCFT).

Stratification. ( a ) The operation of storing seeds im and often in alternate layers with, a Inoist*vruaebdiiIiJity such 88 sand or peat, in order to maintain or overcome *dormaney. (b ) (Ecol.). The dispositiOn of vegetation in superposed *storeys. (c) (Stat.)~ Subdivision of a *population into strata or blocks or *sampling units as a preliminary to sampling. Each stratum should be more homogeneous in respect of the *variable being measured than the population as a whole. (BCFT).

Stump. (a) The base of a tree and its roots left in the ground after felling. Syn. Stub. Cf. Stool; Snag. (b) See cutting, root and shoot. (BUT).

Sub-Climax (Ecol.). A *proclimax in which the development of vegetation is arrested and held at some stage, short of the normal climax, owing to the action of factors, natural or artificial, other than the climate. (After Clements.). Cf. Sereclimax.

Succcession (Ecol.). The gradual replacerrient of one community by another in the development of vegetation towards a *climax; succession is "primary" on sites which have previously not borne vegetation and "secondary" after destruction of whole or part of original vegetation. (BCFT). See also Development of vegetation.

Sunscald, Winter. Injury to bark and *cambium reSulting in wounds or cankers localized on the side of the tree exposed to the mid-day and afternoon ,,un, Injury occurs as a result of freezing following the unseasonable warming of the bark by the winter. (BCFT).

Suppressed. Applied to plants or trees only 1/2 to 5/8 of the height of the best trees, with their leading shoots definitely overtopped by their neighbours or at least shaded on all side by them. Cf. Dominant; Dominated.

Survey, Forest. An inventory of forest land to determine such data as area and topography together with the condition, composition and constitution of the crop(s) on it, but not stricly crop enumeration. (BCFT).

Survey, Strip. A partial *enumeration employing regularly spaced survey lines (strictly a linear survey) or strips of specified width, along which recording of data is continuous. (BCFT modif.). Syn. Linear Strip survey; Linear survey.

Swamp. (Ped.). Any area, such as a marsh or boo, where the ground saturated with water throughout much of the year, but during most of the year, the surface of the soil is not deeply submerged. (SSSA).

Swarrn (Entom.). The simultaneous emergence or assembling in one place of large numbers of an insect species. (BUT).

Synecology (Ecol.). The *ecology of the *community as opposed to that of the individual. See Autecology. (BUT).

System, Conversion. A method of silvicultural procedure designed to change forest crops from one system or one (set of) species to another, e.g., coppice to high forest, selection forest to uniform, or hardwood to conifer. (BCFT).

System, Improvement Felling. A method of treatment involving essentially the removal of inferior growing stock and tending the better elements of the crop, usually in an irregular *forest. lt is not a*silvicultural s stem as it does not aim at regeneration.


Taproot. The primary descending root formed in direct continuation of the radicle of the embryo; in trees, usually a stout root descending vertically from the centre of the tree. (BCFT).

Taungya. (a) (Burmese ; taung = hill- Ya = Cultivation). See Cultivation, shifting. (b) The term is now applied to the method of raising forest plantations in combination with field crops, otherwise known as Agri-8ilvi methods or Agri - silviculture, and to the plantations themselves.

Termite, A member of the order Isoptera. Syn. White ant. There are three ecological classes of termites:~


Damp Wood. A termite which enters wood directly from the air at the time of swarming and has no contact with the ground, but which requires abundant moisture for its existence and consequently confines its activities largely to decaying wood.

Dry Wood. A termite which is exclusively wood inhabiting, never entering the gFound and requiring but litle moisture for its existence.

Su bterranean. A termite which is essentially soilinhabiting, entering wood only from the ground, and requiringa constant supply of moisture for its existence. It readily invades wood in contact with damp soil and is also able to build covered runways over impenetrable obstructions and thus reach wood removed from ground contact (BCFT modif.)

Tetraploid (Genet.). Having four *chromosome sets; the indtvidual so constituted.- (BUT).

Therophyte. (Ecol). A class of Raunkiaer's life *forms consisting of annuals or ephemerals passing unfavourable season as seeds and thus completing the life-cycle from germination to ripe seed within a single growth period.

Thinning. A felling made in an immature stand for the purpose of improving the growth and form of the trees that remain, without permanently breaking the *canopy. (BUT).

Thinning, Ordinary. The method in common use that consists in the removal of inferior individuals of a crop, starting from the suppressed class, then taking the doininated class and lastly some of the dominant class. Applied to regular crops. Syn. Low thinning.

Thinning Cycle. The planned interval which elapses between successive thinnings in the same area.

Thinning Grade. Refers to the relative extent to which a crop is opened up in thinning. Standard thinning grades are distinguished in ordinary and crown thinnings with reference to the extent to which stems are removed. Cf. Thinning intensity; See Appendix III.

Tolerance. (a) The capacity of a tree to develop and grow in the shade of, and in competition with, other trees. (b) The capacity to withstand other factors as well as shade used in this sense, when some indication should always be given of the factor that is tolerated, e.g., shade tolerance, frost tolerance, etc. Cf. Exacting. (BCFT modif.).

Ton (Cubic). In terms of timber volume, a unit of 40 cu. ft. of timber oil which shipping freight rates are usually based. In India, Burma and Malaya, the ton is treated as equal to 50 cu. ft. of sawn timber or 50 hoppus feet of round timber, the latter known as hoppus ton.


In terms of weight, a ton=2240 avoirdupois, and this is known as the long ton.

1 short ton = 2000 lb. avoirdupois = 0.9072 metric ton.

1 metric ton = 1000 kilogrammes = 1.102 short ton.

= 0.9842 long ton.

Translocation. The movement of food and other materials within the tissues of a plant. (BCFT).

Transplant. A seedling after it has beA moved one or more times in a nursery, in contrast to a seedling planted out direct for the seedbed. (BCFT). Cf. Seedling.

Transplant, To. To move nursery stock from one part of the nursery to another in order to obtain young trees suitable for planting out. (BCFT). Cf. Line out, to; Prickout, to. (Use of the term in the sense of *planting out is dying out and is deprecated).

Tree, Trap. A dead or girdled standing tree left t attract insects and facilitate their destruction, Syr Trap stem. Cf. Log trap. (BCFT).

Tree, Weed. A tree of a species having little or n econ.<)mic value on the site in question.

Tree, Wolf. A vigorous tree,' usually of bad form, 0( cupying more space than its future value warrant and threatening potentially better neighbours; usuall a broad-crowned *dominants. (BCFT).

Triangular Planting. Planting in the pattern of an equilateral triangle, i.e., with the plants occupying the three corners of each of adjacent equilateral triangles.

Triploid (Genet.). Having three chromosome sets; the individual so constituted. (BCFT).

Tenure: The body of laws, regulations and customs which govern the rights of individuals, households and communities over land.

Terrace: An embankment or ridge of earth constructed across a slope to control run-off and minimize soil erosion. Bench terraces and ridge terraces are the two general types.

Top Soil: A distinguishable layer at the surface of the soil, often 6 or 7 inches in thickness. In dark-colored soils, the surface layer or layers distinctly higher in organic matter than the material below. In many light-colored soils, the layers that lie over material of heavier texture and more pronounced structure, provided such material occurs within about 15 inches of the surface. In uniform soil material the soil to plow depth. The thickness of the original topsil, before accelerated erosion, is commonly used as a standard against which to estimate the degree of accelerated erosion.


Infiltration Velocity (Ped.). The volume of water moving downward into the soil surface per unit of area per unit of time. The local instantaneous volume is the limit approached as the area and time interval are made small. The maximum infiltration velocity is the infiltration rate. (SSSA).


Wasteland :- It is defined as degraded land which can be brought under vegetative cover with reasonable effort and which is currently under utilised and land which is deteriorating due to lack of appropriate water and soil management or on account of natural causes.

Watershed: (1) The total land area, regardless of size, above a given point on a waterway that contributes run-off water to the flow at that point. (2) A major drainage-area subdivision of a drainage basin. On the basis of this concept the United States is generally divided into some 150 watersheds such as t he Cheyenne, Delaware, Pecos, Plee Dee, Muskingum, and Willamette.

A unit of the landscape that contains all the drainage areas and channels contributing to a single stream or river system.

Watershed can be defined as an area, which is drained by common stream network draining towards specific points (a single outlet). In other words, for a specific point on the natural stream network, watershed can be defined as an area of catchment, for that particular point. It is marked by an elevated line (ridgeline) that forms a division line (water divide) between two areas drained by

separate streams.

Water Spreading: The application of water to lands for the purpose of increasing the growth of natural vegetation or to store it in the ground for subsequent withdrawal by pumps for irrigation.

Water Table: The upper surface of free ground water in a zone of saturation except when separated from an underlying body of ground water by unsaturated material.

Watershed: (1) The total land area, regardless of size, above a given point on a waterway that contributes run-off water to the flow at that point. (2) A major drainage-area subdivision of a drainage basin. On the basis of this concept the United States is generally divided into some 150 watersheds such as t he Cheyenne, Delaware, Pecos, Plee Dee, Muskingum, and Willamette.

A unit of the landscape that contains all the drainage areas and channels contributing to a single stream or river system.

Watershed can be defined as an area, which is drained by common stream network draining towards specific points (a single outlet). In other words, for a specific point on the natural stream network, watershed can be defined as an area of catchment, for that particular point. It is marked by an elevated line (ridgeline) that forms a division line (water divide) between two areas drained by

separate streams.

Watershed Management:- Watershed management, or protection, implies the wise use of soil & water resources within a given geographical area so as to enable sustainable production and to minimize floods.

Watershed management, in terms of its physical components, is very nearly synonymous with soil a water conservation with an emphasis on optimums production rather than on crop production.


Zero grazing: Livestock production systems in which the animals are fed in pens or other confined areas and are not permitted to graze.